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 Format: MS-Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 87   Attributes: Primary Data, Data Analysis

 Amount: 3,000

 Aug 26, 2018 |  09:48 am |  1787



1.1             Background to the Study

Despite widespread recognition of the serious public health consequences of tobacco use, the prevalence of cigarette smoking seems to have risen among university undergraduates. Cigarette smoking is the practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the result ‘smoke’ (consisting of particle and gaseous phase).

Tobacco use if addictive can cause several health disorders such as cancer, heart disease and respiratory disease among others. Indeed, constant substance use causes morbidity, health and social problems. According to Morello, Duggan, Adger, Anthony and Joffe (2011), “tobacco use has medical, psychological and social implications and can be, for many students, the beginning of a course that leads to substance dependence”. University students’ encounter many challenges as a result of tobacco use. University students make use of cigarettes for various reasons among which are to relieve stress and to raise their morale. Tobacco use normally starts during adolescence, and majority of the first time use takes place before graduation from high school.

Substance use among adolescents in tertiary institution is unacceptably high; this may have health implications on adolescents as they grow old. Most student smokers’ on campus and elsewhere constitute persons that snub normal moral values set by the family and society, but are happy to obey and conform strictly to the values of their peer group. Peer exerts negative attitudes among adolescents and individuals by challenging them to prove their manhood through performing a risky stunt such as smoking.

As such both girls and boys are made to indulge in risky behaviours they ordinarily would not have taken, but taking such risky behaviour is the only way of assuring their acceptance. By so doing, they become addictive to such behaviour with inherent consequences on their personal well being and health. Peer groups exert much influence on adolescents, and no matter how inappropriate their mode of operation may look to adults, being a part of the group gives something momentous to the young person.

The acceptance and practice of risky behaviours like smoking among smokers can be traced back to their teens and the kind of moral principles accepted by the peer group. This is so as peer groups provide comfort and self-esteem to adolescents. It is indeed worthy to say that most of the current smokers on campus are individuals encouraged to make use of different tobacco products by friends they make on campus, and accepting to smoke is seen as a bond to their friendship. This incidence is problematic due to the short and long-term effects such unhealthy behaviour would have on the student’s cognitive development and personal life during their academic pursuits and after graduation. Therefore this study shall attempt to assess the effect of cigarette smoking on students on Kogi State University Anyigba.

1.2       Statement of the Research Problem

Numerous factors have been identified to be responsible for the persistence cigarette smoking among undergraduates: it includes cigarette advertisement by the manufacturers and the media, the entertainment industries who portray smoking as a habit for attitude and talent acquisition. Peer influence is another major force behind smoking behaviour of university undergraduates.

University undergraduates involve themselves in smoking behaviour because they think smoking will enhance their morale and that it can make them to become more brilliant. Cigarette smoking among university undergraduate is associated with a range of health comprising behaviour, including being involve in fights, carrying weapons, engage in high-risk sexual behaviour and using alcohol among other drugs.

Cigarette smoking is a growing public health problem in developing world. The rate to which university students in Nigeria get themselves in smoking behaviour is alarming because many of these students’ smokes and drink alcohol before coming class and when they are in class they find it difficult to assimilate and concentrate.

Apart from the health implications which can shorten the life span of a person, cigarette smoking makes the university undergraduates to involve themselves in anti-social behaviour such as assault, sexual harassment, raping and gangs fight on and off campus. It is evident that cigarette smoking and its accompanied moral laxity in on the increase in Kogi State University, hence the need to conduct this study.

1.3       Research Questions

This research work attempted to address the following questions:

1.      What are the factors that predispose students of Kogi State University, Anyigba to cigarette smoking?

2.      Why do students of Kogi State University, Anyigba, indulge in cigarette smoking despite the inherent dangers of smoking?

3.      What is the role of peer pressure in cigarette smoking among undergraduates?

4.      What are the health risks associated with cigarette smoking?

1.4       Aim and Objective of the Study

The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of cigarette smoking among undergraduates in Kogi State University Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria.


The specific objectives were:

1.   To identify and analyze the causes of cigarette smoking among undergraduates in Kogi State University and Nigeria at large.

2.   To establish the reason why students of Kogi State University, Anyigba still indulge in cigarette smoking despite the inherent dangers.

3.   To ascertain the role of peer influence in cigarette smoking among students of Kogi State University, Anyigba.

4.   To examine the health hazard associated with cigarette smoking.

1.5       Research Hypothesis

The following hypotheses guided this study:

Hypothesis 1

Ho – There is no relationship between peer influence and undergraduates smoking.

Hi – There is a relationship between peer influence and undergraduate smoking.

Hypothesis 2

Ho – There is no relationship between inadequate socialization and undergraduates smoking.

Hi – There is a significant relation between inadequate socialization and undergraduates smoking.

1.6       Significance of Study

This study will be significant in its bid to find out the causes and the possible consequences of cigarette smoking among undergraduates.

This study also will tend to create awareness or sensitize the undergraduates, the health hazard of cigarette smoking and other risk factors of smoking behaviour. This could help curbing the smoking behaviour among undergraduate smokers.

It will also sample the opinion of the university undergraduates and the general public on this phenomenon cigarette smoking to know how they feel about the growing public health problem posed by cigarette smoking.

Another importance of this study is its ability to make contributions to the work of organization like the psychosocial therapist who treats the drug dependent person and other primary health care service provider.

The significance of this study will also be established in the area of education attainment. It will be made to contribute to the view on the education ability of the undergraduates’ smokers.

This study will serve as a basis for further study on cigarette smoking and it will also contribute to the existing literature in the field of study.

1.7       Scope and Limitation

The scope and limitations of this study will be on the effect of cigarette smoking among undergraduates in Kogi State University Anyigba, Kogi State of Nigeria to enable the researcher carryout the research adequately within the limited time available for research project.

1.8             Definition of Special Terms

Health: is a relative concept according to sociologist; it varies according to social group. Functionalist definition of health refers to health as the ability to perform normal daily activities.

Illness: are experiences of changes in states of being and social function: it is something that people experience as having an unpleasant impact upon their lives and activities.

Diseases: are abnormalities in the structure and function of the body organs and system. It refers to abnormal and harmful physical changes in the body.

Medicine: the role of medicine is to encourage decent maintenance and to intervene if anything goes wrong.

Tobacco: it is a dried and cured leave that contains nicotine and Harman (a MAO inhibitor), which when combined gives rise to addictive stimulant and euphoria properties. The effect of nicotine in first time or irregular users is an increase in alertness and memory, and mild euphoria. Nicotine also disturbs metabolism and suppressive appetite. This is because nicotine, like many stimulants increases blood sugar.

Tobacco smoking: is the act of inhaling the smoke of dried or cured leaves of the tobacco plant and inhaling the smoke for pleasure, for ritualistic or social purposes, self medication, as well as to satisfy a physiological dependence on nicotine.

Cigarette smoking: is most common form of tobacco consumption. Because of the curing process, the smoke is mild enough to inhale in overdose quantities, unlike cigar or pipe tobacco. It contains a number of additives, particularly to enhance taste.

Mortality Rates: refer to the number of people dying within any particular period, per 100,000 of the population.

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