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SYNTHESIS OF MIXED LIGAND COMPLEXES OF ACETAMIDE AND AMPICILLIN WITH ZINC AND COBALT IN METHANOL AND WATER MEDIUM

 Format: MS WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 63   Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Feb 08, 2020 |  01:58 am |  1407

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Coordination compounds are molecules or ions in which a central atom has atoms or molecules (ligands) attatched to it and the number of bonds to the central atom (its coordination number) is not equal to the valence. Coordination compounds may be charged or uncharged. If charged, they are often referred to as complex ions. (Lawrence et al., 2010). Organometallics are special categories of coordination compounds in which one or more carbon atoms of an organic molecule or atom are directly attached to the central metal atom i.e there is a carbon metal direct bond. (Lawrence et al., 2010). Poly nuclear complexes are coordination compounds with multiple central metal atoms . Poly nuclear complex that contains any direct metal-metal bonds may also be called metal clusters. (Lawrence et al., 2010).

The areas of coordination compounds or chemistry can be classified according to the nature of the ligands in broad terms:Werner complexes e.g [Co(NH3)6]Cl3, Organometallic chemistry, Bioinorganic chemistry, Cluster chemistry e.g Ru3(Co)12. (Blackwell Science, 2015). It is applied in the field of heavy industry and natural sciences, coordination compounds reduces toxicity and irritation in drugs, the ligand may be used as antidote. (Haper et al,1983).

Metals are substances with high electrical conductivity, luster and malleability which readily loses electron to form positive ions (cations). Metals are otherwise defined according to their position on the periodic table. (Helmenstine, 2019). Metals are grouped on the periodic table as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, rare earth metals.

Drug is any substance that causes a change in an organisms physiology or psychology when consumed. Drugs are typically distinguished from food and substances that provides nutritional support. (Rang et al, 2011). Ampicilin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacteria infections such as respiratory tract infections, meningitis, salmonellosis and endocarditis. It belongs to the drug class PENICILIN. (Magdesia, 2017). Acetamide is an organic compound with the formula CH3CoNH2. It is the simplest amide derived from acetic acid. It finds some use as a plasticizer and as an industrial solvent. (Coleman and Alvarado 1993).

A transition metal is an element whose atom has a partially filled d sub-shell or which can give rise to cations with an incomplete d sub- shell. It cis an element in the d-block of the periodic table which includes group 3 to 12 on the periodic table. Lanthanide and actinide series are also considered transition metals. (Petrucci et al., 2002). Zinc is a chemical element with the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is a slightly brittle metal at room temperature and has a blue-silvery appearance when oxidation is removed. (Gurjar et al., 2006)

Cobalt is a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27. Cobalt is found in the earth crust only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron.  (Harper et al., 2012). Antimicrobials is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungal are used against fungi. (Wainwright, 1999).

Antibacterias are used to treat bacterial infection. Antibiotics are classified generally as beta-lactams, macrolides, fluroqindes, tetracycline or aminoglycoside. Their classification within these categories depends on their antimicrobial spectra, pharmacodymics and chemical composition. Stool transplants may be considered for patients who are having difficulty recovering from prolonged antibiotic treatment as for recurrent Clostrodium difficile (which results from disruption of normal, healthy bacteria in the colon often as a result of antibiotics ) infections. (Brandt ,2013)

Antifungals are used to kill or prevent further growth of fungi. In medicine, they are used as a treatment for infections such as athlete’s foot, ringworm and thrush and work by exploiting differences between mammalian and fungal cells. Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) blasted on to surfaces acts as antifungal. (Kellermayer, 2013)

1.2    RESEARCH MOTIVATION

This research is done to allow us know if ampicilin as a drug can be used for other purposes asides the one it is being known to be used for, if there are other treatment an ampicilin drug can cure and it is not yet discovered.

1.3    AIM                                                         

To synthesize, characterize and to study the antimicrobial activities of mixed ligand, complexes of ampicilin and acetamide with zinc(ii) and cobalt(ii)ions in water-methanol medium.

1.4    OBJECTIVES

·         To study the appropriate medium suitable for the formation of  metal complexes

·         To synthesize the metal complexes of ampicilin with cobalt(ii) in water,   methanol medium with different ratio 1:1 and 1:2

·         To synthesize the metal complexes of ampicilin with zinc(ii) ion in water, methanol medium with different ratio 1:1 and 1:2

·         To synthesize the mixed ligand complexes of ampicilin and acetamide with cobalt(ii) in water, methanol medium ratio 1:1:1 and in 1:2:1.

·         To synthesize the mixed ligand complexes of ampicilin and acetamide with zinc(ii) in ratio 1:1:1 and 1:2:1.

·         To evaluate or study the antimicrobial activities of the ligands and their metal complexes.

1.5     SCOPE OF STUDY

           To synthesize, characterize and evaluate the antimicrobial activities of metal mixed ligand complexes at different ratio concentration in water-methanol medium.

1.6     LIMITATION OF STUDY

            The main objectives of the metal complexes to be synthesized is limited to the study of antimicrobial behavior of ampicillin, metal complexes and its mixed ligand with acetamide but not extend to the structural elucidations which may involve x-ray, NMR, mass spectra etc. 

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