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EXTRACTION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE INGREDIENT FROM KOLA NUT (BITTER KOLA), CAFFEINE, THEOPHYLLINE, THEOBROMINE

 Format: Microsoft Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 77   Attributes: STANDARD RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 16, 2019 |  09:02 am |  2307


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                                          

Certification                                                                                     

Dedication                                                                              

Acknowledgment                                                                    

Abstract                                                                                            

Table of content                                                                      

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0        Introduction                                                                           

1.1        Kola nut                                                                                 

1.1.2  Brief description                                                  

1.2        Harvesting, storage, pest and diseases                          

1.2.1  Chemical composition                                         

1.3        Kola nut uses and effects                                                        

1.4        Stimulant                                                                               

1.5        Effect of stimulant                                                                  

1.6        Indication of stimulant                                                  

1.7        Types of stimulant                                                                  

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0        Literature review                                                           

2.1        Caffeine                                                                                  

2.2        Physical effects                                                                       

2.3        Chemical properties and biosynthesis                           

2.4        Caffeine metabolites                                                      

2.5        Metabolism                                                                             

2.6        Theobromine                                                                          

2.7        Sources of theobromine                                                

2.8        Theophylline                                                                           

2.9        Mechanism of action                                                               

2.10     Metabolism                                                                   

2.11     Aim                                                                                         

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0        Research methodology                                                  

3.1        Apparatus, reagent and material                                   

3.1.1  Apparatus                                                                     

3.1.2  Reagent                                                                         

3.1.3  Materials                                                             

3.2        Sample collection                                                

3.3        Procedure                                                                               

3.3.1  Alkaloid determination                                        

3.3.2  Determination of total phenol by spectrophotometric method

3.3.3  Saponin determination                                                           

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0        Result and discussion                                                   

4.1        Result                                                                                     

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0        Recommendation and conclusion                                 

5.1        Recommendation                                                          

5.2        Conclusion                                                                    

References

ABSTRACT

The effect of dietary dry speed powder of kola (Bitter kola) at inclusion level of (0, 10, 20 and 40g/kg of feed) on haematological parameter body weight and survival rate of pullet chick were investigated in a study that lasted eight week, 250-days old pullet chick were randomly allocated to five treatment group. A treatment contained two replicate of 25 birds each result shows that G. Kola (Bitter Kola) dry seed powder.

Inclusion in the diet improve weight gain in group B.C.D and E. this compared favourable with that of the control group A weight gain for group E feed 40g/kg feed dry seed powder of bitter kola was lowest when compared to other groups. Height weighs gain was however recorded for the group D Bird (30kg feed) dry seed powder of bitter kola for the period of experiment lasted result in this study showed that the higher  the level of inclusion of dry powder seed of bitter kola in the diet the lower the mortality rate recorded. This support the antimicrobial activity of Garcinial Kola as already documented in literature haematological parameter such as Pack Cell Volume (PCV).


CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1    KOLA NUT

 The kola nut is the fruit of the kola tree, a genus (Cola) of trees native to the tropical rainforests of Africa. The caffeine-containing fruit of the tree is sometimes used as a flavoring ingredient in beverages.

1.1.2 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

Kola nut, caffeine-containing nut of Cola acuminata and Cola nitida, trees of the cocoa family (Sterculiaceae) native to tropical Africa and cultivated extensively in the American tropics. The evergreen tree grows to 18.3 metres (60 feet) and resembles the chestnut. The 5-centimetre- (2-inch-) long brown nut is hand-collected and dried in the sun for commercial use, mainly as an ingredient of soft drinks and medicine. American and European soft-drink manufacturers, however, do not use the kola nut; instead, they manufacture synthetic chemicals that resemble the flavour of the kola nut.

Kola nut is a caffeine-containing nut of evergreen trees of the genus Cola, primarily the species Cola acuminata and Cola nitida. Cola acuminata is an evergreen tree of about 20 meters in height, and has long, ovoid leaves pointed at both the ends with a leathery texture. The trees have yellow flowers with purple spots, and star-shaped fruit. 

Inside the fruit, about a dozen round or square seeds can be found in a white seed shell. The nut’s aroma is sweet and rose-like. The first taste is bitter, but sweetens upon chewing. The nut can be boiled to extract the cola. This tree reaches 25 meters in height and is propagated through seeds. C. nitida and C. acuminata can easily be interchanged with other Cola species.

Originally a tree of tropical rainforest, it needs a hot humid climate, but can withstand a dry season on sites with a high ground water level. It may be cultivated in drier areas where ground water is available. C. nitida is a shade bearer, but develops a better spreading crown which yields more fruits in open places. Though it is a lowland forest tree, it has been found at altitudes over 300 m on deep, rich soils under heavy and evenly distributed rainfall.

Regular weeding is a must and can either be done manually or by using herbicides. Some irrigation can be provided to the plants, but it is important to remove the water through an effective drainage system, as excess water may prove to be detrimental for the growth of the plant. When not grown in adequate shade, the kola nut plant responds well to fertilizers. Usually, the plants need to be provided with windbreaks to protect them from strong gales. 

1.2    HARVESTING, STORAGE, PEST AND DISEASES

Kola nuts can be harvested by hand, by plucking them at the tree branch. Like in western countries and other countries of the world, it has been harvested by the use of harvesters. When kept in a cold and dry place, kola nut can be stored for a long time.

The nuts are subject to attack by the kola weevil Balanogastris cola. The larvae of the moth Characoma strictigrapta that also attacks cacao bore into the nuts. Traders sometimes apply an extract of the bark of Rauvolfia vomitoria or the pulverised fruits of Xylopia and Capsicum to counteract the attack on nursery plants.

 

The cacao pests Sahlbergella spp. have been found also on C. nitida as an alternative host plant. While seeds are liable to worm attack, the wood is subject to borer attack.

 

1.2.1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

·         Caffeine (2–3.5%)

·         Theobromine (1.0–2.5%)

·         Theophylline

·         Phenolics

o    Phlobaphens (kola red)

o    Epicatechin

o    D-catechin

o    Tannic Acid

·         Sugar

o    Cellulose

·         Water

1.3    KOLA NUT USES AND EFFECTS

The kola nut has a bitter flavor and contains caffeine. It is chewed in many West African cultures, individually or in a group setting. It is often used ceremonially, presented to tribal chiefs or presented to guests. Chewing kola nut can ease hunger pangs. Kola nuts are often used to treat whooping cough and asthma. The caffeine present acts as a bronchodilator, expanding the bronchial air passages. Frequent chewing of the kola nut can also lead to stained teeth.

Kola nuts are used locally as a medium of exchange. They are also commonly chewed by local labourers as a stimulant to diminish sensations of hunger and fatigue. Small pieces of kola nut chewed before meals act as an aid to digestion. In Brazil and the West Indies, the astringent-tasting nuts are used as a botanical drug to combat intoxication, hangover, and diarrhea.

 

The Igbo of southeastern Nigeria employ the nut in various social rituals. The presentation of a plate of kola nuts is the central aspect of the visitation rituals practiced by the tribes.

One teaspoon mixed with coffee, tea or hot chocolate gives you a little more spirit. You might want to add some honey, because it tastes quite calcareous.

 

For a real energy kick use 2 teaspoons. With higher doses you won't be able to sit still. 2-6 grams is the officially recommended dosage.

Kola nut is a strong stimulant. Like coffee, Kola nut is stimulating and non-soporific (it keeps you awake). The psychoactive effect however is stronger and different. The power of endurance increases, while it dispels hunger. It also increases concentration, clears the brain, works as a light aphrodisiac and it can raise a 'high'.

 

It boosts your normal capabilities at - for instance - work, sports, dance and sex. Because Kola nut withdraws energy from the body in many ways, it's also used for weight loss in addition to a diet. The side-effects are similar to those of coffee; restlessness and sleeplessness. Taking Kola nut late in the evening might result in not being able to sleep. Long and intensive usage might lead to addiction, sleeplessness, nervousness or increased blood pressure.

1.4    STIMULANT

Stimulants (also referred to as psychostimulants) are psychoactive drugs which induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical function or both. Examples of these kinds of effects may include enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion, among others. Due to their effects typically having an "up" quality to them, stimulants are also occasionally referred to as "uppers".

 

Depressants or "downers", which decrease mental and/or physical function, are in stark contrast to stimulants and are considered to be their functional opposites. Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines and as illicit substances of recreational use or abuse.


1.5    EFFECT OF STIMULANT

Stimulants produce a variety of different kinds of effects by enhancing the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common effects, which vary depending on the substance in question, may include enhanced alertness, awareness, wakefulness, endurance, productivity, and motivation, increased arousal, locomotion, heart rate, and blood pressure, and the perception of a diminished requirement for food and sleep.

 

Many stimulants are also capable of improving mood and relieving anxiety, and some can even induce feelings of euphoria. It should be noted, however, that many of these drugs are also capable of causing anxiety and heart failure, even the ones that may paradoxically reduce it to a degree at the same time.

Stimulants exert their effects through a number of different pharmacological mechanisms, the most prominent of which include facilitation of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and/or dopamine activity (e.g., via monoamine transporter inhibition or reversal), adenosine receptor antagonism, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonism. 

1.6    INDICATION OF STIMULANT

Stimulants are used both individually and clinically for therapeutic purposes in the treatment of a number of indications, including the following:

  • To counteract lethargy and fatigue throughout the day while at work or while doing other activities.
  • To reduce sleepiness and to keep the person awake when necessary, as well as to treat narcolepsy.
  • To decrease appetite and promote weight loss, as well as to treat obesity.
  • To improve concentration and focus while at work or school, especially for those with attentional disorders such as ADHD.
  • Occasionally, they are also used off label to treat clinical depression, more particularly, non-typical depression and treatment-resistant depression.

1.7    TYPES OF STIMULANT

·         Xanthines

·         Theobromine

·         Theophylline

·         Caffeine

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