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EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE VARIETY OF TEA IN LOKOJA MARKET

 Format: Microsoft Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 45   Attributes: STANDARD RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 16, 2019 |  08:58 am |  2099


TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Introduction

1.2     Background of study

1.3     Theory

1.4     Historical development of caffeine

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1     Structure of caffeine

2.2     Properties of caffeine

2.3     Uses of caffeine

2.4     Effects of caffeine

2.5     Harmful effects of caffeine

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Materials and methodology

3.1     Methodology

3.2     Materials used

3.3     Reagent used

3.4     Sample used

3.5     Soxhlet apparatus diagram

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Result and discussion

4.1     Result

4.2     Observation

4.3     Table for determination of wavelength of caffeine maximum absorption

4.4     Graph

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Conclusion and recommendations

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

          References

ABSTRACT

Caffeine is a naturally occruing chemical stimulant, central nervous system called trimethyxanthine, it’s chemical formular is C8H10N4O2. It was extracted from tea (Lipton) using soxhlet extraction method, I was able to obtain 0.30 grams (g) from 50 grams (g) of tea sample (Lipton) used.

The wavelength of maximum absorption of caffeine using invisible spectrophotometer was determined to be 260 mm.


CHAPTER ONE

EXTRACTION AND RECOMMENDATION OF CAFFEINE VARIETY OF TEA IN LOKOJA MARKET

1.0    INTRODUCTION

          Tea is the most commonly and widely used soft beverage in the household. It act as a stimulant for central nervous system and skeletal muscles that is why tea removes fatigue tiredness and headache. It also increases the capacity of thinking.

          It is also use for lowering body temperature. The principal constituent of tea. Which is responsible for all these properties, is the alkaloid caffeine. The amount of caffeine in tea leaves varies from sample to sample.  

         Originally it was thought that caffeine is responsible for the test and flavour of tea. But pure caffeine has been found to be a tasteless while substances therefore, the taste and flavour of tea is due to some other substances present in it. There is a little doubt that the popularity of the xanthenes beverages depends on their stimulant and action, although most people are unaware.

Of any stimulation, the degree to which an individual is stimulated by given amount of caffeine varies from. Individual to individual for example, some people boast their ability to drinks several cups of coffee in evening and yet sleep like a long, on the other hand there are people who are so sensitive to caffeine that even a single cup of coffee will cause a response barding on the toxic.

          The xanthene beverages also create a medical problem. They are dietary of a stimulant of the C.N.S. Often the physicians face the question whether to deny caffeine containing beverages to patients or not. In fact children are more susceptible than adult to excitation by xanthenes.

          For this reason, tea and coffee should be excluded from their diet. Even cocoa is of determination of caffeine in tea sample doubt value. It has a high tannin content may be as high as 50 mg per cup.

          After all our main stress is on the presence of caffeine in xanthene beverages and so in this project I will study and observe the quantity of caffeine varing in different sample of tea leaves.

 

1.1    BACKGROUND

          Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant.

          It is legal and found in may beverages, including coffee, tea and colas it is the must widely abused durug in the world.

          It is used: the apeutically to relieve fatigue and as diuretic it can also be found in medication such as migraine and other headache treatments (cafergot, fiorinal, fioricet), pain relievers (Anacin, Vanguish, Excedrin midol, Darvon synalgos DC, DGA).

          Muscle relaxants (Norgesis, Forte), cold allergy treatments (Cory ban - D), divertics (Aqua-Ban) and pep pills (No DOZ Vivarin).

          The route of administration is usually ingestion swallowed as coffee, tea, cola, soft drink, or as a tablet/capsule medication. It can also be eaten as chocolate product or ingredient.

Sometime benzoate solution. 

1.2    THEORY:

          The most important methylated alkaloid that occures naturally is caffeine. Its molecular formular is C8H10 N4 O2. It’s IUPAC name is 1, 2, 3 – Trimeth xanthene and common name is 1 – methylated thiobromine

          Purely it is white, crystalline solid in the form of needles. Its melting point is 1230C. It is the main active principle component of tea leaves it is present ion tea leaves up to 3% and can be extracted by first boiling the tea leaves with water which dissolves many glycoside compound in addition to caffeine. The clean solution is then treated with lead acetate precipitate the glycoside compounds in the form of lead complex the clean filtrate is then extracted with extracts caffeine because it is more soluble in it than water.

1.3    HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CAFFEINE

          In July 16, 2009 by ken Chisholm

What is caffeine?

Caffeine is the most unity used durug in the world. It’s a physical addictive stimulant that is naturally produced in the leaves, seeds and fruits of many plants. Commonly found in coffee, tea, soft drinks chocolate and wide variety of over-the-counter medications, it is legal and easily accessible. 

When coffee that remains is sold to many beverage companies. That shows you how valuable it is to the soft drink industry.

1.3.1 HISTORY OF CAFFEINE

          People have enjoyed caffeinated beverage for thousand of years. The earliest record of caffeine consumption dates to around 2700 B.C when chiese emperor shen Nung drank stronmg, hot brewed tea, coffee originated in Africa around 575 A.D where beans were as money and consumed as food. Records show the eleventh century Arabs drank coffee regularly.

          Spanish conquistadors first exploring what is now Mexico were served coffee by Montezuma, the mighty Aztec ruler, in 1519.

          Revolutionary Americans made a nation unite switch from tea to coffee as the caffeinated drink of choice in the eighteenth century. This was done to spite the tea Act, from laid on tea imported by Americans.  

          Eventually, the Boston Tea party was held, in which revolutionaries dumped a large quantity of tea cargo from a boat into the Boston Harbor in protest of the high tax placed on tea.

The word’s first caffeinated soft drinks were created in the 1880s.

          In 1958 caffeine was recognized by the American food and Drug Administration (F.D.A) as being “Generally Recognized as safe” (GRAS).

          Caffeine in its natural form caffeine fates very bitter, but most caffeinated drinks have gone through enough processing to camouflage the bitter taste. Most teens get the majority of their caffeine intake through soft drinks, which can also have added sugar and artificial flavors of course, many teens enjoy cappuccinos or café lattes, and a couple of those will give you enough caffeine to make several people “Wired”.

          Caffeine affects everyone in similar ways. Like al stimulants, caffeine raise blood pressure, and its effects range from mild alertness to heightened anxiety and body tension.

          In moderate doses, it produces “coffee jitters” – headaches, disorientation and insomnia.         

          Regular users who suddenly stop consuming caffeine may experience withdrawal symptoms including drowsiness, headaches, irritability, nausea, a vomting and depression.

          Although the amounts of caffeine needed to affect each person differ, people who drink caffeine regularly develop a reduced sensitivity and require higher doses of caffeine to achieve the same effects as some do not consume it regularly.

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