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EVALUATION OF FAT AND PROTEIN PROPERTIES IN FRESH COW MILK

 Format: Microsoft Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 50   Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 16, 2019 |  08:56 am |  2153



TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                          

Certification                                                                       

Dedication                                                                 

Acknowledgement                                                              

Abstract                                                                            

Table of content                                                         

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0        Introduction                                                               

1.1        Scope of study                                                           

1.2        Purpose of study                                                

1.3        Importance of study                                                   

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    Literature review                                                        

2.1    Occurrence                                                               

2.2    Breads of cow                                                            

2.3    Source of cow milk                                                     

2.4    Composition of cow milk                                              

2.5    Nutritional Value of cow milk                                

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    Materials and method                                          

3.1    Apparatus and equipment                                    

3.2    Reagents                                                                   

3.3    Source of sample                                                       

3.4    Sample collection                                                       

3.5    Storage of sample                                                               13

3.6    Experimental procedures                                                      13    

3.7    Procedure for fat determination                                             14

3.8    Procedure for protein determination                                       14

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0        Results and Discussion                                                 

4.1        Results                                                                      

4.2        Discussion                                                                 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0        Summary, conclusion and recommendations                          

5.1        Summary                                                                  

5.2        Conclusion                                                                 

5.3        Recommendations                                                              

References                                                                

List of tables                                                              

List of figures                                                             

ABSTRACT

The proximate analysis of cow milk was carried out. The result obtained from this analysis shows that cow’s milk contains approximately 3.5% fat and 10.92% protein, and the PH of cow milk which is 6.4 making it slightly acidic.


CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

          Milk is an emulsion colloid of butter fat globules within a water based fluid. Each fat globule is surrounded by a membrane consisting of phospholipids and protein. This emulsifier keeps the individual globules from joining together into noticeable grains of butter fat and also protects the globules from the fat digesting activities of enzymes found in the fluid portion of the milk. In the fat of unhomogenized cow milk, the fat globules averages about four micrometer across (Dackly, J.K. et al, 2001).

          Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals (including montremes) (Bango F, et al, 2006). It provides the primary source of nutrients for newborn mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. The early lactation milk is called colostrums, and carries the mother’s antibiotics to the baby. It can reduce the risk of many diseases in the body. The exact component of fresh milk varies by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as Vitamin C (Chuinnard P.Y et al, 1998).

          The fat globules contain some yellow-orange Carotene, enough in some breed Guernsey and Jersey cows, for instance, to impact a golden or “creamy” hue to a glass of milk. The riboflavin in the whey portion of the milk has a greenish colour, which can sometimes be discerned in skimmed milk or whey product. Fat free skimmed milk has only the casein micelles to scatter light more than they do red, giving skimmed milk a bluish tint. The carbohydrate lactose gives milk its sweet taste and contributor about 40% of whole cow milk calories (Gulati S.K. 1997).

          The fat soluble Vitamins A, D and k are found within the milk fat portion of the milk. The largest structures in the fluid portion of the milk are casein protein micelles, aggregates of several thousand protein molecules, bounded with the help of nanometre-scale particles of Calcium Phosphate (Hipen A.R., 2002). Each micelles is roughly spherical and about a tenth of a micrometer cross. There are four different types of casein proteins, and collectively they make up around 80 percent of the protein in milk by weight.

          Milk of the casein proteins are bounded into micelles. The fat globules and the smallest casein micelles, which are just large enough to deflect light contributes to the opaque white colour of milk. Skimmed milk, however, appears slightly blue because casein micelles scatter the shorter wave lengths (blue compared to red) (Clork S, 2001).

          Lactose is a component of two simple sugar, glucose and galactose. In nature, lactose is found only in milk and a small number of plants. Other components found in fresh cow milk are living white blood cells, mammary gland cells, various bacteria and a large number of active enzymes.

          The compositions of milk differs widely between species factors such as the type of protein, the proportion of protein, fat and sugar; the level of various vitamins and minerals and the size of the butter, fat, globules and the strength of the curd are among those that can vary (Kelly, M.L. 1998).

 

1.1    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

          This project work is limited to the determination of the protein and fat content of the fresh cow milk.

 

1.2    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

          The purpose of this work is to determine the fat and protein contents of fresh cow milk among other vitamins and minerals present.

 

1.3    IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

          The importance of this work is to determine the nutritional value of fat and protein contents present in fresh cow milk.

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