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 Format: Microsoft Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 50   Attributes: STANDARD RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 16, 2019 |  08:54 am |  2158


Table 1                                                                                    

Table 2                                                                                    

Table 3                                                                                    


Title page                                                                                          





List of tables                                                                                     

Table of contents                                                                    


          CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction                                                                           

1.1     Scope of study                                                                        

1.2     Aims and objectives                                                                



2.0     Literature review                                                           

2.1     Source of cow milk                                                                 

2.2     Importance of protein and fat in human health   

2.3     Composition of cow milk                                                        

2.4     Uses of cow milk                                                           

2.5     Disease of protein and fat deficiencies                           



3.0     Research Methodology                                                  

3.1     Apparatus and equipment                                             

3.2     Reagents                                                                                 

3.3     Collection of sample                                                                

3.4     Method of analyzing the sample                                    

3.4.1  Procedure for fat determination                           

3.5.2  Procedure for protein determination          



4.0     Result and discussion                                                   

4.1     Result of fat analysis                                                     

4.2     Discussion                                                                    



5.0     Summary, conclusion, and recommendation                

5.1     Summary                                                                                

5.2     Conclusion                                                          

5.3     Recommendation                                                 




Protein is an important part of a healthy diet. Protein is a macro-nutrient that can provide the body with energy. Proteins are made up of amino acids; Amino acids are the building blocks. Protein is a long train of amino acid linked together.

          Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into globular or fibrous. Protein is an important part of the life and nutrition; it is a substance that composes a large portion of the body’s structure. Many protein and enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions and are vital to metabolism. (Donker et al, 1954).

          Protein also have structural or mechanical function such as actin, and myosin in muscle and the protein in the cytoskeleton, which forms a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape.

          Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion and the cell circle. Proteins are very important molecule in our body cells. They are involved in virtually all cell functions some protein are involved in structural support, while other are involved in bodily movement or in defense against germs (Gorweit 1984).

          Fat is natural oil or greasy substance accruing in animal bodies especially when deposited as a layer under the skin or around certain organs. Fat is a nutrient. It is crucial for normal body function without of survival is difficult. (Dylewski et al, 1984) fat consists of wide groups of compounds that are generally soluble in water. Chemically, fat of glycosides, triesters of glycerol any of several fatty acids. Fats may be either solid or liquid at room temperature, depending on their structure and composition.



          The word oils, fats and lipid are all used to refer to fat. Oil is usually used to refer to fats and liquid at normal room temperature, while fat is usually used to refer to fats that solid at normal room temperature. Examples of fat are lard, fish oil, butter and whale blubber etc. (Darckely et al, 2001).

          Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by animal gland of mammals. It provides the primary source of nutritional value for newborn mammal until they are able to digest other types of food. The early lactation milk is called colastrum and carries the mother antibodies to this body.    The exact component of raw milk varies by species but it contain significant amount of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as Vitamin C (Borgo et al, 2001).

          Milk is an emulsion colloid of butter fat globules within a H2O based fluid each fat globule is surrounded by membrane consisting of phospholipids and proteins.

          This emulsifier keeps the individual globules from joining together into noticeable grain of butter fat and also protects the globules from the fat digesting activities of enzymes found in fluid protein of the milk. In the fat of unhomogenized cow milk, the fat globules average about 4 micrometers across. (chounnad et al 1998).

          During milk helps to reduce the incidence of tooth decay. There are no evidence to support the theory that drinking milk aids an the tooth decay and as a result children should be allowed to drink milk. Increase in their consumption of milk is one of the major contributed factors to many people.

          The benefits of milk for the substitute source is believed that drinking milk will cause them to gain weight there are also heritance that drinking the acquired stirring of dairy products such as milk contribute to a person being over-weight early.

          Lactose intolerance individual need to supplement with a non-dairy product but for every one else, we should not stop drinking milk because it is important to our health. (P.Fiffer, 2000).

          Cow milk has ph ranging from 6.4 to 6.8 making of slightly acidic. In most mammals milk is feed to infant through breast feeding either directly or by pressing, to be stored to be stored and consumed later. In many culture of the world especially to western World, human continue to consume milk beyond infancy, usually the milk of the other mammals (particularly cow milk) as a food product. (Borgo et al, 2001).

          Cow milk has been processed into dairy product such as powered milk, butter, yoghurt, ice cream, and especially the more durable and easily transportable product like cheese (Murphy, 2000).

The fat soluble Vitamins A, B, E, K are found within the fat portion of the milk. The longest structure in the fluid portion of the milk are casein protein micelles; aggregates of several thousand protein molecule, bounded with phosphate (Hipper, 2002).


Each micelles is roughly spherical and about a tenth of a micrometer. There are four different types of casein protein and collectively, they make up round 80% of protein in milk by weight. Most of the casein protein are bounded micelles, the fat, globules and small casein micelles which are just large enough to deflate might contribute to the opaque while colour of milk.

Skimmed milk however appears slightly blue because casein micelles scattered the shorten wave length (blue component to red). (Chucks, 2001).

          Cow is a fully grown animal of a domesticated bread of ox, used as a source of milk or beef. Cows are the most common types of large domesticated ungulates. Cow is classified under kingdom animalia, phylum-chordate, class-mammalia, subclass-theria, infraclass-Eitheria, order – Artiodactyla, family – Bovidae, subfamily – Bovidae, Genus – Bos, species – B. primigeius subspecies Taurus, B.P indices. (Michalski et al, 2001).


          They are prominent modern members of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most spread species of the genus Bos and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos Prinigenius. Cows are raised as livestock for meat or milk (Dylewski et al).

          Cows were originally identified as three separated species: Bos Taurus, the European or “taurine” cows (including similar types from Africa and Asia), Bos Prinigenius Taurus, Bos Prinigenius indices and Bos Prinigenus as the subspecies (Wheelock et al 1965).

          Columbus brought the first cows to the new world back in 1493 on his second voyage. As they were raised in Mexico, some escape, bred successfully and came to consider the most dangerous denizen of the wilds of Northern Mexico and Southern Texas. Wild cow were plum mean and they had the burns to show us how they felt.

          Cow began having calves three times in a year, and the young were larger than their parents. The new America burns cows become lean, tough and more suited for long drives than their European ancestors. Yong cattle of both series called calves until they are weaned.

          In some other area particularly with the male beef cattle, they be known as feeder-calves. An adult female that has had a calf is called cow. A young female before she has had a calf of her own is called heifer. (Aggarwal, 2007). The following is a list of breed of cows.

          Over 800 breeds of cow are recognized worldwide, some of which adapted to the local climate, other which were bred by human for specialized uses. Breeds fall into two main types regarded as either two closely related species or subspecies of one species, Bos indices (or Bos Taurus indices) cows also called Zebu are adapted to hot climate. Bos Taurus (or Bos Taurus) is the typical cattle of Europe North Eastern Asia and part of Africa. 

          They are referred to in list as “taurine cows and many are adapted to cooler climates (Weary D.m, 2009).

          In some part of the world further species of cattle are found (both as wild and domesticated animals), and some of these are closely related to taurine and indices bred. Example include Dwartlulu cattle of the mountain of Nepal with Yak blood, the beefalo, of North America with, bison genes, the Selembu bread of India and Bhutan with gayal genes etc. (Weary D.M, 2009). 


          This work was undertaken to determine protein and fat content in fresh cow milk and to know their importance to human health.


          The objective of this work is to estimate the actual protein and fat content in fresh cow milk.

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