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 Format: MS-WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 65   Attributes: STANDARD RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 13, 2019 |  03:19 pm |  2161



Title Page                                                                                          





Table of contents                                                                    



1.0        INTRODUCTION                                                           

1.1     Background of the Study                                                        

1.2        Aim of the Study                                                           

1.3        Importance of the Study                                                



2.0        LITERATURE REVIEW                                                   7

2.1        Proximate Analysis of Jatropha Curcas seed                 

2.2        Botanical Features of Jatropha Curcas                         

2.2.1   Leave of Jatropha Curcas                                    

2.2.2   Flower of Jatropha         Curcas                                   

2.2.3   Fruit of Jatropha Curcas                                               

2.2.4   Seeds of Jatropha Curcas                                    

2.3        Cultivation of Jatropha Curcas                                     

2.4        Propagation of Jatropha Curcas                          

2.5        Processing of Jatropha Curcas                                      

2.6        Uses of Jatropha Curcas                                                         

2.6.1   Jatropha Oil                                                                  

2.6.2   The Seed                                                                       

2.6.3   The leaves                                                            

2.6.4   The Flower                                                           

2.6.5   The Nut                                                                         

2.6.6   The Root                                                                       

2.6.7   The Bark                                                             

2.6.8   The Latex                                                             

2.6.9   The Sap                                                               

2.6.10                The Shrub                                                 



3.0        METHODOLOGY                                                           

3.1        Apparatus/Equipments                                                

3.2        Reagents/Chemicals                                                               

3.3        Sample Collection                                                         

3.4        Procedures                                                                    

3.4.1   Determination of moisture content of Jatropha Curcas Seed  

3.4.2   Determination of Ash content of Jatropha Curcas Seed         

3.4.3   Determination of fat content of Jatropha Curcas Seed           

3.4.4   Determination of crude fibre content of Jatropha Curcas Seed        

3.4.5   Determination of protein content of Jatropha Curcas Seed              

3.4.6   Determination of carbohydrate content of Jatropha Curcas Seed




4.0        RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                       

4.1     Results                                                                                    4.2    Comparison of Result with Literature                        

4.3     Discussion                                                                    



5.0        CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                            

5.1        Conclusion                                                                    

5.2        Recommendations                                                                  




This research carried out the proximate analysis of Jatropha curcas seed. The oven drying technique was used for the determination of moisture content, the ash content was determined using the burning technique (muffle furnace), soxhlet extraction technique was employed in the determination of the fat content; refluxing technique was also used in the determination of fibre content, titration technique used to determine the protein content, while the carbohydrate content determination was based on differences. The result of the proximate analysis shows that it contains 5% of moisture, 2.50% of ash, 45% fat, 0.60% crude fibre, 29.25% of protein and 17.65% of carbohydrate. From the obtained result; one can see that Jatropha curcas seed is very rich in nutritional value but with a very low fibre content.



          Jatropha Curcas (euphorbiaceae called pinion of India) also known as Barbadox nut, Purging nut or Physic nut is a specie originating in the Indies and currently wide spread in the villages of tropical Africa (Adjano houn et al., 1989). Jatropha is a shrub tree of about 3 – 5 meters high, family euphorbiaceae. When mature its leaves are green in colour and it twig. Jatropha Curcas find usefulness in reclaiming is very rich latex. Its seed coat are green when eroded areas, because of it drought resistant nature. It is immature and yellow when ripe. It is a multipurpose plant, also used as boundary fence or live hedges in arid and nature, drought resistant and, formerly a native of south semi arid areas.

          Medicinally, it has been reported that the America, but nowadays, it thrives all through Africa that the latex of Jatropha Curcas contain Jatrophine.

          Among the two common non-edible oils in Nigeria, Jatropha Curcas plant and Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Jatropha Curcas plant are found economically un-useful and invaluable. These plant are most used as fences for houses and are present in abundant quantity in abandoned lands while the usefulness of neem is felt across the nation. Jatropha Curcas as early said is a drought resistant oil bearing multipurpose shrub/small tree, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, widely grown in Mexico, China, North-East Thialand, India, Nepal, Brazil, Ghana, Mali, Foso, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Malawi, Zambia and some other countries. The Jatropha Curcas plant which can easily be propagated by cutting, is widely planted as a hedge to protect field, as it is not browse by cattle or other animals. It is well adapted to arid and semi-arid condition and often used for prevention of soil erosion, also it grows in a wide range of rainfall regimes, from 200 to 1500 mm per annum. The plant grows quickly forming a thick bushy fence in a short period of time 6-9 months, and growing to height of 3-4m with thick branches in 2-3 years. It has a life of 50 years. Seed of Jatropha Curcas resemble castor seed in shape, but are smaller and brown. Jatropha Curcas can tolerate high temperature and grows very well under low fertility and moisture condition. It can survive in poor stony soils. Due to leaf shedding activity, Jatropha plant become highly adaptable in harsh environment because of the decomposition of the shed leaves would provide nutrient for the plant and reduces water loss during dry season. Thus, it is well adapted to various type of soil, including soils that are poor in nutrition such as Sandy, Saline and Stony Soils. Jatropha cultivation in wasteland would help the soil to regain its nutrient and will be able to assist in carbon restoration and sequestration. Lu et al (2000).



          The growth in world’s population has resulted in a surge of energy demand and for more than two (2) centuries, the world’s energy supply has relied heavily on non-renewable crude oil derived from fossil fuels, out of which 90% is estimated as being consumed for energy generation and transportation. This has now led the world to be presently confronted with double crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Khan has predicted that before the end of 21st century the world’s reserves of fossil fuel would be expended. Devanesan et al (2002), also confirmed that these know crude oil reserves could be depleted in less than 50 years at present rate of consumption. Horn revealed that as at the year 2012, 99.1 and 95 million barrels of crude oil will be consumed per day according to OPEC and energy information Administration (EIA) calculations respectively. This implies that as at 2010, the would had consumed nothing less than 35 billion barrels of oil per year, but in new field discovery, we find less than 6 billion barrels per year, with this fact, more dependents are on countries like Nigeria, Mexico and Venezuela know to be world oil production peaks. As a result of this, oil checks are becoming smaller and smaller and very soon will be insignificant relative to the world’s needs. These realities have a boost to fossil fuel. One of these alternative is the production of bio diesel from the Jatropha Curcas oil. This led to the increase in the growing of Jatropha Curcas in most of these countries.

In view of these aforementioned statements, it is therefore imperative for a country like Nigeria to increase the research on the production of bio diesel and different analysis on economically feasible feedstock to back up dependency on fossil fuel. A good example of readily available and economically feedstock in Nigeria is oil from Jatropha Curcas seed. Therefore with these developments it is important to carryout research on Jatropha Curcas seed and know the various content of it composition: and also encourage it cultivation in Nigeria. R. Banerji. et al., (1985) Jatropha seed oil for energy.



          The aim of this project is to determine:

v  The moisture content of Jatropha Curcas seed

v  The ash content of Jatropha Curcas seed

v  The fat content of Jatropha Curcas seed

v  The protein content of Jatropha Curcas seed

v  The crude fibre content of Jatropha Curcas

v  The carbohydrate content of Jatropha Curcas seed.



          Moisture is the measure of the water content of a material and is an important factor in substance quality preservation and resistance to deterioration (Aurand et al (1987) the moisture content of substances is of greater importance for many scientific, technical and economic reasons (food standard committee, 1979).

          The ash of an agricultural material in the inorganic residue remains after the organic material has been burnt off (Pearson, 1976). The important of ash content is that it gives an idea of the amount of material element present in sample.

          Crude protein, the problem of providing adequate protein for an expanding world population is second only to the overall substance problem (Pomeranz and Meloan, 1987) for this reason it in imperative to determine the protein content of Jatropha Curcas seed.

          Fat and oil are the commercially important group of substances classified as lipid (Abraham and Hron 1990). These make it very important to determine the crude fat content of Jatropha Curcas seed.

          Crude fibre content includes, theoretically, materials that are indigestible in the body of animal organism and human. It is determine as material insoluble in diluted acid and diluted alkali under specified condition (Pomeranz and Maloan, 1987). Crude is a measure of the quantity of indigestible cellulose, Pentosans, lignin and other component of thus type present in substance (Aur and et al., 1987). Therefore it is important to determine the crude fibre of Jatropha Curcas seed.

          Carbohydrates are the most abundant and widely distributed food component (Pomeranz and Maloan, 1989). it is important to know the carbohydrate content of Jatropha seed meal because it is said that carbohydrate is an important source of energy for animals.

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