Format: MS-Word Chapters: 1-5
Pages: 70 Attributes: Primary Data/questionnaire, Data Analysis
1.1. Background to the study
From pre-colonial times to early 21st century, the role and status of women have continually evolved. In the pre-colonial period women, played a major role in social and economic activities(Falola, 2015).
Women’s struggle dates back to the 19th century when women like Amina of Zaria, Madam Tinubu of Lagos, Olufumilayo Ramsom Kute of Abeokuta, Margaret Ekpo and Hajji Gabon Swabia among others fought to give women the pride of place in Nigeria’s history even after the struggle for independence was over and Nigeria became an independent sovereign nation, women continued to contribute their quota in the post – impendence match towards contributed immensely to the mobilization and sensitization of women with a view to ensuring that women is involved in the politics of the country (Erunke, 2009).
In other dimension, Professor Dora Akunyili, who of course served as the head of the National Agency for Food Administration Control (NAFDAC) has not contributed the least to the Nigerian economy, nay, and Nigerian politics. The relative decrease in the level of counterfeit drug importation from several countries of the world to Nigeria market has been reduced considerably it was during the leadership of Professor Akunyili. (The case of Sarah Jibril who contested for the office of President with Goodluck Jonathan and Hon. Mulikat who strongly vied for the seat of speaker House of Representative is apt in this direction). As a matter of fact, women are said to constitute over 60% of the Nigerian electorates. And the 2006 census put the Nigerian women at about half the population of the entire country. Despite this numerical advantage and the massive participation in voting, less than 20% of political offices are held by women (Esiden and Abdul, 2013).
Over the years women have been relegated to the background in the issue of the overall development especially in developing nations like Nigeria. This is borne out of the sentimental attachment on feminine gender. Historical evidence is available to prove that the Nigerian women have for long been playing crucial role in political life of the country, and this has contributed in no small measure in shaping the political system of the nation. For development of any kind to be successful, a vintage position should be accorded the women, as they constitute large proportion of the population. In this regard they should not be left out in issues of decision making that bothers even on their lives as a people(Gonyok, 2008).
What is really the meaning of politics? Various scholars resulting in different views of politics have as the act of possible, a game of wits, all that begins and ends with government. Politics is essentially the art and science of government. That is, the study of the control, distribution and use of power over human activities in society (Asogwa, 2011).
The word politics is derived from the Greek word Polis, which means ʽCityGateʼ. Aristotle (384-322 Bc) in his treatise on human association in the polis which presupposes the establishment of government, law making, enforcement and eliciting obedience from the members of the society. Aristotle observed that man is by nature a political animal. This means that politics permeates all human activities. It manifests in social, economic and cultural intersection among individual and groups and transcends international frontiers.
The Nairobi world conference to review and appraise the achievement of the UN decade for women in 1985, and the Beijing fourth world conference on women in 1985, both had top on their agenda issues concerning women and the media. This conference brought to the fore the importance of the media in the quest for gender equality in development, despite their international conferences and polices aimed at gender friendliness however, women’s participation in Nigeria politics is undermined by the way media presents politics an exclusively as a male domain. Contemporary experiences have shown that broadcast media is very important to political development of nations. Broadcast is not only a way of teaching sensitizing and transmitting messages on issues of development, but also crucial to the process of development. Considering the fact that broadcast is increasingly been used worldwide with its power of reaching a large mass audience, it should not be ignored in the political scheme of things. Wikigender. . The aim here is not just critically analyze the impact of broadcast media in the quest for a gender equitable polity, but to also turn the searchlight of feminists and media scholars to broadcast with regards to gender and politics. It is here posited that broadcast media could significantly influence the acceleration and acceptance of women in politics.
The challenges of women’s participation in the political process in Nigeria gained significant attention, following the countries return to democracy in1999. With transfer of power from the military regime to a civilian democratic administration, one would have taught that women will also be represented equally based on the Beijing declaration. On the contrary, with the percentage increase of 2%, 4% and 6% in women political participation,6.3%, 8.8% and 7.3% women representation in the national parliament in 1991, 2003 and 2007 elections respectively. This is obvious that the perception that democracy will automatically boost women’s political involvement has not been validated after nine years of Nigeria’s return to civil rule (Okocha, 2007; Akinyede, 2003; The Nigeria CEDAW NGO coalition shadow report, 2008, p and Adu, 2008:7). It is in line with the foregoing that the researcher investigates the role of Grace FM, Lokoja, in the promotion of women in politics in Nigeria.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
It is not a hidden fact that women are underrepresented in the field of politics. This may be because of the basic assumption that ‟a woman’s place is in the kitchen”. In other words, her home duties and family responsibilities should be her sole priority, thereby underlining her active participation in national development in general.
Poor participation of women in politics and governance has been a major concern at global level. In Nigeria, women participation in politics is not proportionate to the 50% of the nation’s population which they represent and has not translated into equal representation in political leadership positions. The global issue of goal 3 (to promote gender equality and empower women) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other international clarion calls for bridging the gap created by long-term discriminations against women and making women visible in politics made Nigeria to recognize women in the political sphere and include them in both appointive and elective positions. Yet, there persists poor participation of women in politics and the number of women in political positions in Nigeria is growing at a slow rate despite efforts to change such trend (Nwabunkeonye, 2014).
The mass media have a crucial role to play in the promotion of women in politics; this is because the media generally, can educate inform, entertain, persuade and set agenda for the public to follow. Thus, it becomes pertinent to ask whether Grace FM, Lokoja, promotes women in the participation of politics in Nigeria and the extent to which it does. This has become necessary because women’s participation in politics is poor. Therefore, the problem this study investigates is the role of Grace FM, Lokoja in the mobilization of women for political participation in Kogi State.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The objectives of the study are to:
1. Determine the extent to which radio mobilize women for political participation.
2. Ascertain the program use in mobilizing women for politics.
3. Find out the audience perception of Grace FM program on politics.
1.4 Research Questions
1. Does radio mobilize women for political participation?
2. What are the programmes used in mobilizing women for political participation?
3. What are the audience perceptions of Grace FM program on politics?
1.5 Significance of the study
The study is important is several ways; the study is conducted for the following significance:
Firstly, it is important because it will provide information to people and encourage positive attitude towards women participation in politics and increase their knowledge in women politics.
Secondly, to provide information to media practitioners in respect to women politics campaign, in other to achieve effective objectives.
Thirdly, to proffer solution to the government and for the governments to better appreciate women political participation.
1.6. Scope of the Study
This study is based on the appraisal of Grace FM on the role of the mobilization of women for political participation in Kogi state. The area where the research will be carried out is Lokoja metropolis. The reason for choosing this area is because the radio station for the research is located in lokoja.
Grace 95.5 FM was established and began operation in the year 2007 with the cardinal objective of being a family radio station. It is full service radio, which plays a wide range of programs that are well tailored to suit the need of every segment of the society. Programs range from good talk to great hits, news, weather report, sports and entertainment, culture, education and health issues targeting their specific needs of their audience the world over.
The radio station has the highest percentage of audience share and reach in kogi state and a significant percentage from its extensive reach. The state transmits within the Abuja broadcast zone, which covers six (6) states across the north central belt of the country including the nation’s capital.Abuja itself with its signal strength taking it into over twelve (12) states of the federation. This is in view of the number participant’s on6 its live audience phone-in-programmes from across the states due to the array of good programmes. It can also b5e assessed on the internet. Grace 95.5 FM Lokoja is a subsidiary of the confluence cable network (CCN). The station is owned by TundeOgbeha. Group.http://www.gracefm.net.
1.7 Definition of Terms
In this study certain key words will be examined into conceptual and operational definitions.
Broadcast: The conceptual meaning of “broadcast” is a channel through which information and program are sent out on television and radio which are means of communicating to heterogeneous and homogenous audience. The operational meaning of “broadcast” It includes television and radio which are means of communicating to heterogeneous and homogenous audience.
Mobilization: The conceptual meaning of “Mobilization” is to make people ready to pursue a particular cause. The operational meaning “mobilization” It has to do with organizing and preparing people for a particular purpose.
Participation: Theconceptual meaning “participation” is the art of taking part in an activity or event.
Politics: The conceptual meaning “politics” is the activities involved in getting and using power in public life and being able to influence decision that affects a country or society. The operational meaning of “politics” is a competition between political parties towards or which party assumes political leadership.
Role: The conceptual meaning of “role” is the degree to which something or somebody is involved in a situation or activity and the effect that they have on it. The operational meaning of “role” is the functions expectation on given post or position.
Woman: The operational meaning of “Woman” is Womanly- having qualities held to be appropriate.
Agoawike, A. (2004). Image of women in the media. Sunday Champion
Newspaper, December 29,p.2.
Esiden, E. & Abdul, S. (2013).The role of women in Nigerian politics. Interrogating the gender question for an enhanced political representation in the forth republic. Afro Asian Journal of Social Science, 4 (4): 6-13.
Gonyok, R. (2008). The critical role of women in Nigeria politics. Nigeria
Village Square. Available at: critical-role-of-women-in-Nigeria-politics.html
Kotangora, L. (2005). Stimulating female participation in Kaduna polytechnic.
Journal of Women in Technical Education.40, (2).
Obasi, F (2008) Handbook on research proposal writing. Enugu: RuwilNudas
Nwabunkeonye, U. P. (2014). Challenges to women active participation in politics in
Nigeria. Sociology and Anthropology, 2(7): 284-290.
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