Format: MS-WORD Chapters: 1-5
Pages: 110 Attributes: STANDARD RESEARCH
Media campaigns have dominated health communication and behaviour change interventions, using a variety of strategies to reach the audience. Close contacts with the focal individuals, also referred to as opinion leaders, contribute to effective campaigns. Prevention is the main goal of various HIV/AIDS communication interventions. Of the over 2 billion people globally, 5.4 million are living with HIV. Nigeria records over one thousand new HIV/AIDS cases of infection daily with the prevalence rate of over 60% occurring among youths between the ages of 24-36 years. Statistics has shown that Kaduna state with a population of over 7 million people had over 5.1 percent infected with HIV/AIDS that is about 300,000 people are infected with HIV/AIDS with a significant proportion of this population youths. This study focuses on how HIV/AIDS campaign has been utilised to control the spread of the virus in Kaduna metropolis. The objectives include to examine the channels of communication used for HIV/AIDS campaign in Kaduna metropolis, the influence of HIV/AIDS campaign on sexual bahaviour among inhabitants of Kaduna metropolis, to determine the weaknesses of the HIV/AIDS campaign messages used in Kaduna metropolis, to find out the relevance of HIV/AIDS campaign messages in Kaduna metropolis and to ascertain how messages on HIV/AIDS help to control its spread in Kaduna metropolis. Relevant literature was reviewed from conceptual and empirical sources, while the Health Belief Model was used as a theory for this study. Survey and in-depth interview were used as research design while structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used as instruments of data collection. The population of the study was drawn from Kaduna metropolis, while purposive and accidental sampling techniques were used to draw 200 sample size for the study. In addition, three members of staff of Kaduna State Agency for the Control of AIDS and another two from Society for Family Health were interviewed. After a descriptive and inferential data analysis, it was found out that despite the campaign against the spread of the disease, 45.5% and 28.5% of the respondents indicated that there is still high rate of it in the metropolis. It was recommended that more attention should be given to radio, interpersonal channels and the campaign should be increased in the local government areas within Kaduna, in order to curb the spread of the virus.
Communication has been the fulcrum upon which the society revolves and it has been used in all facets of human endeavour ranging from agriculture, health, human capital development among others. Chief among these functions is health communication which deals with dissemination of health-related messages from sender to receiver. The mass media are the tools of communication, hence, information about health are passed across using various media of communications. Such information or health communication messages can be about HIV/AIDS and other related ailments. This is sometimes a two-step process with media influence at the national and community level as well as motivating personal influencers or opinion leaders (Atkin 2001; Rogers 1995).
Media campaigns have dominated health communication and behaviour change interventions, using a variety of strategies to reach the audience. Close contacts with the focal individuals, also referred to as opinion leaders, contribute to effective campaigns. Prevention is the main goal of various HIV/AIDS communication interventions. Since the early 1990s, international AIDS programmes worldwide use media campaigns to disseminate the information about the epidemic (Myhre and Flora, 2000). Obviously, the mass media have largely and effectively created room for interventions to increase the knowledge of HIV transmission, to improve self-efficacy in condom use, to influence some social norms, to increase the amount of interpersonal communication and to boost awareness of health providers, among others. This has been consciously done to help put the spread of the disease under control just as scientists are simultaneously and unrelentingly working round the clock with the aim of producing medications that will cure the disease if contracted.
Of the over 6 billion people globally, 5.4 million are living with HIV. Nigeria records over one thousand new HIV/AIDS cases of infection daily with the prevalent rate of over 60% occurring among youths between the ages of 24-36 years. Statistics have shown that Kaduna state with a population of over 7 million people had over 5.1 percent infected with HIV/AIDS that is about
300.0 people are infected with HIV/AIDS with a significant proportion of this population youths. . The United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) in 2012 revealed that about
700.0 Nigerian youths, aged 15 - 32, are living with HIV/AIDS. According to the Executive Director of UNAIDS, Mr. Michel Sidibe, the country risked the danger of new HIV infections if the youths are not properly educated about the effects of the virus. In a recent study titled ‘Knowledge, Perception and Attitude of University Students towards prevention of HIV/AIDSit was reported that youths constitute the highest number of casualties of the HIV virus. The figures presented in the study established that over 51.7 % of students of Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria have multiple sex partners, a situation that increases the chance of contracting AIDS and other sex-related diseases. Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, with a population of about 180 million people, is not ruled out of countries facing and suffering under the claws of HIV and AIDS (UNFPA, 2015). Owing to this, there came the need to get the masses more sensitised on how to curb the spread of the disease and if possible, what to do with the cooperation of government and non-government agencies to totally obliterate the disease from the societies. Notably, HIV/AIDS has emerged as one of the greatest public health challenges that has proved difficult to stop in spite of the public health community having dramatic success in other areas of disease prevention (Obi, 2013).
Also recently, specifically in July this year, the Director General of the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Professor John Idoko, sensationally revealed that Nigeria records over 1,000 new HIV/AIDS infections daily, with youths aged 24 -36 taking a higher percentage of the total figure (Sola and Abdul, 2015). Kaduna state is one of the states ravaged by the HIV/AIDS scourge since it has high population density youths cutting across various cultures because of its cosmopolitan nature. The state is ranked 3rd in the country with a prevalent rate of
9.2 per cent (Obi, 2013; Biz Watch Nigeria, 2013).
Understanding health communication is critical to communicating successfully. Health communication is one tool for promoting or improving health. Changes in health communication can affect individuals’ awareness, knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, skills, and commitment to behaviour change. The informal groups to which people belong and the community settings they frequent can have a significant impact on their health (Bertrand, O'Reilly, Denison, Anhang and Sweat, 2006). Examples include relationships between customers and employees at a salon or restaurant, exercisers who go to the same gym, students and parents in a school setting, employees at a worksite, and patients and health professionals at a clinic. By influencing communities, health communication programmes can promote increased awareness of an issue, changes in attitudes and beliefs, and group or institutional support for desirable behaviours. In addition, communication can advocate policy or structural changes in the community that encourage healthy bahaviour.
Health communication has been at the centre of any disease control. This is because the public health practitioners across the globe now intensify campaign on the need to dwell more on prevention than cure of ailments (Adam and Harford, 1999). To this end, the HIV/AIDS campaign has taken a new dimension in the past one decade, bringing the message of preventive health care system closer to the people, instead of cure. However, health communication experts have proven the need for an understandable message presented in a form that could be acceptable to all race and traditions, in the prevalence areas. Various media of communications have been put in place to cater for the messages such as local language programmes on the mass media and billboards, drama extravaganza at the theatres and other official functions organised by corporate bodies, government and non-governmental organisations. Evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies of media communication is also determine by their acceptance by the receivers.Receiving the messages by the audience help to boost attitudinal change, acceptance of societal moral standards vis-a-vis cultural and religious barriers.
According to Abebe (2004), health communication messages are much more than merely disseminating information to people to keep them informed using the radio, television, newspapers and pamphlets. It entails the active solicitation of their perspectives to help consider options to shape the formation of policy, ensuring that the mechanisms are in place for a twoway flow of information and to build consensus among stakeholders about the development agenda. This, according to Crewe (2000), becomes strategic communication which can only be effective and have the momentum to move into another level or network of audience if those first contacted embrace the information and pass it on to others.
In Nigeria, the HIV/AIDS campaign has been spread across various cities, towns and villages, in order to sensitise the youth on the dangers of the pandemic. One of such cities is Kaduna metropolis, where several communication strategies are put in place to campaign against the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Such popular tools available in the state include billboards, radio, television, the various talk shows organised by various organisations, drama, film shows and other performing arts. While the mass media uses the radio to campaign to the youth on the dangers of HIV/AIDS, the talk shows and film shows are organised by various health organisations and other corporate bodies such as non-governmental organisations and international agencies. This study therefore is based on finding out the impact of health communication messages on HIV/AIDS the inhabitants of Kaduna metropolis, consisting of four local government areas, namely Kaduna North, Kaduna South, Igabi and Chikun local government areas.
Studies have confirmed that youth are the most vulnerable to HIV/AIDs in sub-Sahara Africa (Fatusi & Hindi, 2010; Akinyemi & Okpechi, 2011). Intensive program efforts on curbing the spread of the disease have yielded some measureable gains. However, despite marginal reduction in the burden of HIV/AIDS among Nigerian youth from 6% in 2001 to 4.1% in 2010, HIV prevalence rate among this category of population still remains one of the highest in the world (FMoH, 2010). Disaggregating by age group, the recent national estimates of HIV prevalence show that HIV prevalence rate for adolescents (15-19 years) and youths (age 20-24 years) peaked at 3% and 4.6% respectively. These rates raise serious concerns about the protection of next generation.
Nigeria records over one thousand new HIV/AIDS cases of infection daily with the prevalent rate of over 60% occurring among youths between the ages of 24-36 years. Statistics has shown that Kaduna state with a population of over 7 million people had over 5.1 percent infected with HIV/AIDS that is about 300,000 people are infected with HIV/AIDS with a significant proportion of this population youths. Number of People Living with HIV/AIDS are no fewer than 600,000 persons are living with HIV/AIDS in the State (Godwin, 2014). Consequently, Kaduna state had the second highest prevalent rate in the country (Garba, 2015).
The public awareness and sensitisation campaigns on HIV/AIDS in Nigeria today although on the increase have not led to a sharp decline as the prevalence of the pandemic is still present especially among youths. This is because Nigeria is one of the countries in Africa where the disease is said to be not only a pandemic but that which posed a grave consequence on the country’s economic, social, political as well as moral bearings. There is therefore, a concerted effort to stem the tide of the spread of the dreaded disease in order to avert the Public awareness and sensitisation campaigns are one of the many efforts geared towards minimising risky behaviour by encouraging moral uprightness especially in sexual matters between both sexes. The youthful population, the vibrant segment of the society, has been the most vulnerable to the HIV/AIDS virus and a significant percentage of this population are students in tertiary institutions (Ross, 2008). The effect of HIV/AIDS on the young generation not only portends a diminishing of the future workforce, but also, endangers regeneration and societal continuity. To combat the spread of the disease, there are various communication strategies employed by the government and non-governmental to carry out the campaign. Such communication strategies include mass media that involve radio, television, billboards, print media etc. Other strategies include pamphlets, talk shows and drama presentations, among others. These communication strategies have been used over the years in the campaign against HIV/AIDS scourge in Kaduna metropolis. Despite these communication strategies, the HIV/AIDS scourge was recorded to be higher between 2000 and 2009 (Kasl and Cobb, 2001). Against this backdrop, this study seeks to assess the impact of these strategies used for the campaign in Kaduna metropolis.
The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the HIV/AIDS campaign messages among inhabitants of Kaduna metropolis.
Other specific objectives include;
1. To examine the communication channels through which youths receive HIV/AIDS campaign messages in Kaduna Metropolis.
2. To examine the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS campaign on youths sexual behaviour in Kaduna Metropolis.
3. To determine the attributes of the HIV/AIDS campaign messages to youths in Kaduna Metropolis
4. To ascertain the impact of the HIV/AIDS campaign messages to youths in Kaduna metropolis.
5. To find out the challenges faced in accessing messages on HIV/AIDS help to control its spread among youths in Kaduna metropolis.
This research is guided by the following set of questions:
1. Which communication channel do youths receive HIV/AIDS campaign messages from in Kaduna Metropolis?
2. How effective was the HIV/AIDS campaign on youths’ sexual behaviour in Kaduna Metropolis?
3. What are the attributes of HIV/AIDS campaign messages to youths in Kaduna Metropolis?
4. What is the impact of HIV/AIDS campaign messages to youths in Kaduna Metropolis?
5. What challenges were faced in accessing messages on HIV/AIDS help to control its spread among youths in Kaduna metropolis?
This study becomes necessary in view of the prevalence rate of the pandemic among the youth in sub-Saharan Africa and to fashion out the need for concerted efforts through communication messages to control the spread. The study shed more light on the various media that have been used in curtailing the spread of HIV/AIDS in Kaduna State and redirect attention to the most effective channel so that effort be made towards a more effective policy and framework that captures and communicate the messages on HIV/AIDs geared at eliciting positive behavioural change. The study will be of benefit to KADSACA, the agency primarily in charge of HIV/AIDS campaign in Kaduna State and Society for Family Health-SFH Kaduna Office, health communicators, researchers, students, international health organisations and the entire society. To the health communicators, this study will help to create a primary data needed for intensified efforts at curbing the HIV/AIDS scourge. To researchers, this study will add to the existing body of knowledge in the area of communication, public relations, medicine, the government, nongovernmental organisations and various international organisations involved in the campaign against HIV/AIDS. Other beneficiaries of this study shall be the persons living with HIV/AIDS to guide them on the way to live a healthy life even with the virus.
This study deals with the campaign strategies against the HIV/AIDS pandemic, especially among the young people. It takes a look at how the campaign carried out by KADSACA and SFH is perceived by the youths of Kaduna metropolis, using the communication messages, such as radio, billboards, bulletins, talk shows and drama available in the state. The youth to be considered basically are those of Kaduna metropolis, particularly, Kaduna metropolis, comprising four local government areas namely, Kaduna North, Kaduna South, Chikun and
Igabi. This is because the youth are of the sexually active age and as such indulge in premarital sex or sexual abuse. The study will investigate the effectiveness of the campaign messages on the youths in Kaduna metropolis through the various media such as Radio Nigeria Kaduna, billboards, talk shows, film shows and pamphlets among others. Hence, the impact of the messages and its relevance will be measured to determine the results of such messages among the youth.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Terms to be used in the study are defined as follows:
This is an acronym for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is a deadly virus infection that is yet to be curable. It is common in sub-Saharan Africa.
This is the means by which messages about HIV/AIDS are transferred from sender to receiver, within Kaduna metropolis.
The process of reviewing the effectiveness and sustainability of the communication messages on HIV/AIDS on youth in Kaduna metropolis.
This is the transfer of planned and designed health messages from one person to another using several communication channels. It involves the use of communication strategies to spread the messages of HIV/AIDS in Kaduna metropolis.
Health Communication Messages: This involves the process of communicating the designed
messages on HIV/AIDS and the media used to disseminate information about HIV/AIDS pandemic to the youths in Kaduna metropolis.
Youths: Young male and female within the age brackets of 18 years
and not above 40 years residing within Kaduna Metropolis
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