Format: MS-Word Chapters: 1-5
Pages: 63 Attributes: Primary Data/questionnair, Data Analysis
1.1 Background to the Study
Film is a set of or a story recorded as a set of moving pictures to be shown on the television or cinema. It is also a roll on a shut of flexible plastic that is sensitive to light for the use of in photography. Film also known as movie or motion pictures in series of still moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras or by creating images using animation techniques or usual effects. It is considered to be important for a source of popular entertainment, a power method of educating or indoctrinating people especially children. According to Cook (2007) Films are made up of sources of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has an illusion. Film as medium of mass communication has its major role to play in the society which is to educate, entertain and inform the audience.
According to Chamber Dictionary of the twentieth century Film if a thin skin of mainframe coated with a very sensitive substance for taking photographs of a ribbon of celluloid prepared with such a coating for instantaneous photographs for protection by cinematography a motion pictures series.
According to Balogun (1987) film can be classified in Europe film, American film, Chinese film, Nigerian film, length feature films. By violence we mean any form of aggressiveness or use of physical force such as boxing, fighting, rape, killing, stealing, shooting and wrestling to mention but a few which are displayed on our television screen or recorded by our film industries on video tape recorder.
According to Concise Oxford Dictionary of current English, violence can be defined as unlawful exercise of physical force, intimidation. It adds that violence has to do with conduct or treatment, outrage, injury. Children are young boys and girls who are under the influence of their parent or guardians, children can be influenced by other factors such as films and peer groups. According to American academics of pediatrics (APA)  children are influenced by the media, they learn by observing, imitating and making behaviors on their own.
By Retention, we mean the action of keeping it rather than losing it or stopping it. The ability to remember things are very obvious that people especially youth and adolescent retain movies and it has in one way or the other influence their behavior. Some adolescent remember movie or films by the action portrayed in that movie. E.g. wrestlers are being remembered by their styles and action and their action and way of fighting is being retained by people especially adolescent in such a way that if it is being practiced by another, it will be immediately recognized as a brutality of a wrestler while some are being retained and remembered by their names e.g. Deadly desire, Warfront, In the line of duty, Desperado, Terminator, Spartacus, Hercules etc. It is quite depressing to note that since the inception of violent film, there has been increased incident of violent behavior among adolescent. For instance, is seen as imitating the models by using his fellow playmate for demonstration, this is so because that child has retained and remembered that very action of the model in the film the child has watched and it is gradually influencing the child s behavior. Few movies found to be capable of injecting violent act into children includes: House of wax, Scarface commando, Pretty woman etc. These movies all played horrible series, rape and illicit taking of hard drugs. People learn from what they see even if it is on big screen. Adolescent especially spend a substantial amount of time watching television, he or she catches a glimpse of violent act which goes contrary to the ethics of the society.
In Nigeria, there are audience members of home video who are influenced in one way or the other either by the way they retain films or the subject that are detrimental to the wellbeing of the society. They portrayed cases of virtual, armed robbery, prostitution, rape, diseases and other immoral behaviors and it is shown in such a way that viewers are confused about whether they are right norms or not, that is why Frank Aigimoukhuede in Opubor (1995) confirms that many Nigerians have complained about the poisonous content of films shown on the screen in Nigeria. A great number of people has criticized the nation’s television for featuring materials which contradicts or erode the quality of life and undermine the peoples values and norms, saying that what is needed as film, as self-projection which present the fact and figures of life in Nigeria.
Historical background of films in Nigerian experience
The first motion picture was screened in Nigeria on Monday august 12, 1903. It was shown to an exciting audience of Glover Memorial Hall, Lagos. As Lagos standard announces the cinematograph exhibition which is made at the Glover Memorial Hall from Monday night and it is continued for the night is the talk of the town. The film was shown by Messri Balboa of Barcelona, Spain under management of the Nigerian Herbert Macaulay. Although ticket buyers considered the gate fee of three shillings high, it was discovered after the first night of the film was worth the price. The standard later suggested lowering the price so that everybody in Lagos may see for herself. By middle of September 1903, Mrs. Balboa closed her exhibition in Lagos and left to continue showing in other African countries. On her departure, an enterprising European merchant Stanley Jones began to show films in the same Glover Memorial Hall. He showed his first film in November 1903. One of the most thrilling films Stanley showed was about Alake of Abeokuta, a famous Nigerian ruler.
After the independence, the film unit became a division of federal ministry if information with the main objective of producing and exhibiting documentaries. The Nigerian rural film unit experiment was carried by colonial film unit propaganda section in 1952. Therefore, it is emphatically clear that the type of media content (video film) that is exposed to adolescents will also affect their sense of reasoning and action. The film being audio visual in nature have immense role to play in molding the behavior of the adolescent.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Over the years, people have been joining film making business because of money or they want to gain popularity. Films are veritable tools of mass communication which cut across national and cultural boundaries with wide and fast distributing network internationally.
There are two important factors that must be included in discussing the retention of violent films among adolescent. One of the factors is media literacy which was address by Renn Hobbs. “Contended that just because our children can use media and technology doesn’t mean that they effective at actually analyzing and evaluating the message they receive. Children needs a set of skills to ask important question about what they watch, see, listen and what they retain.
The second factor that can affect how children retain and are influenced by violent films is the amount of parental involvement in suspending media exposure of children. Studies, shows that increasing guidance from parent at least as important as reducing media violence. Video films are the mirror through which the society is viewed as it is the most popular medium of entertainment in Nigeria which is suitable to a large audience. With the production of a lot of Nigeria films in both vernacular and English language, there is a great constancy with which the audience always sticks to the front of screen. Therefore, the central issue to be investigated in this study is to what extent has the retention of violent films influenced the adolescent social behavior? This is the question the study is out to address.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1. To find out the level of exposure of adolescent in Solardad Academy, Okene to violent films.
2. To find out the level at which adolescent of Solardad Academy, Okene retain violent films.
3. To find out the type of violent scenes that are most retained among adolescents of Solardad Academy, Okene
4. To find out if the retention of violent films has influenced their social behavior.
1.4 Research Question
1. What is the level of exposure of adolescents in Solardad Academy, Okene to violent films?
2. What is the level of retention of violent episode among adolescents of Solardad Academy, Okene to violent films?
3. What kind of violent scenes are the most retained among adolescents of Solardad Academy, Okene?
4. Have the retention of violent scenes influenced their social behavior?
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study is limited to adolescent of Soladad Academy, Okene, Kogi State but since the characteristics of adolescent are similar in many ways, the findings of the study therefore would be generalized to include all youth.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Home video offers children a great deal of what they want to see, hear and retain, their appeal to curiosity and their convincing realism is very powerful. Therefore the importance of this study is as follows:
1. The study will help instruct parent and guidance to be mindful of the type of films their children watch.
2. The study will be very useful in controlling the effect of violent films among adolescent.
3. The study will also keep government alert to the need to censor the different type of films that are produced.
4. It will help producers to be conscious of the negative influences on younger generations and offer solution to better ways of presentation of the cultural contents of Nigerian films.
5. It will become a reference material to students and other researchers who will intend to carry out studies related to the present study.
1.7 Definition of terms
Retention: action of keeping something rather than losing it or stopping it
Influence: this is the character a person portrays as a result of what he or she watches from violent films.
Violence: it is the action of adolescent as a reason of exposure to violent films which causes damages to their life.
Films: it is played and viewed by people with the aid of television set which is connected to video machines, such films includes horror films, documentary, comedy etc.
Adolescent: they are the audience member used or the study who received the message transmitted.
Social behavior: it is the behavior directed towards adolescents of Adavi Model Secondary School, Okene, Kogi State.
Attitudes: the reaction, habits and practices of the adolescent to violent films.
Adesanya, A. (1997). From film to video: Nigerian video film. Jos: Nigerian Film Corporation.
Comstock, G. S. (1979). Television and human behaviour. New York: Columbia University Press.
Herbert, N. (1981). Mass communication and everyday life. London: Sage publications.
Himmelweit, H.T. (1958). Effect of television on the young. London: Oxford University press.Okunna, C. S. (1990). Introduction to mass communication. Enugu: New generation books.
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