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 Format: MS WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 70   Attributes: standard research

 Amount: 3,000

 May 01, 2020 |  02:29 pm |  987






1.1     Introduction         --       --       --       --       --                 1

1.2     Statement of the Problems--    --       --       --                 3

1.3     Objective of the Study -- --       --       --       --                 5

1.4     Research Question         --       --       --       --                 5

1.5     Significance of the Study --     --       --       --                 6

1.6     Scope of the Study --      --       --       --       --                 6

1.7     Definition of Terms --     --       --       --       --                 7


2.1        Meaning of Radio --       --       --       --       --                 9

2.1.1  Types of Radio of Promoting Literacy --       --                 9

2.1.2  Characteristics of Radio in Promoting Literacy --   --      11

2.1.3  Function of Radio in Promoting Literacy --   - -              12     

2.1.4  Strategies of Promoting Literacy --    --       --                 13

2.1.5  Challenges that face in Promoting Literacy --   -             14

2.1.6  Trends in Literacy Levels and Gaps --   - -    - -               15

2.2.1  Theoretical Framework --         --       --       --                 15

2.2.2  Agenda-Setting Theory   --       --       --       --                 17

2.3     Review of Related Studies --     --       --       --                 17


3.0     Research Methodology --         --       --       --                 20

3.1     Research Design --         --       --       --       --                 20

3.2     Population of the Study --       --       --       --                 21

3.3     Sample Procedure / Sample Size --   --       --                 21

3.4     Research Instrument      --       --       --       --                 22

3.5     Validity and Reliability of the Instrument -- - -               23

3.6     Method of Administration of the Instrument -- -            25

3.7     Methods of Data Analysis --     --       --       --                 27              


4.1     Data Presentation and Analysis --     --       --                 28

4.2     Analysis of Research Question --       --       --                 43

4.3     Discussion and Interpretation of Findings -- - -              44


5.1     Summary of Findings    --       --       --       --                 45

5.2     Conclusion --       --       --       --       --                          47

5.3     Recommendations --      --       --       --       --                 50

References   --       --       --       --       --                          54



This work is designed to study how rural dwellers utilize radio in comparison with literacy message to effect social change in the area.

According to Moemaka (1981:34), the impact of radio diminishes as one gets away from the cities into the rural area, while the rural dwellers exist mainly as an eave – dropp ing audience for promoting literacy.

Fortunately, one of the outcome of seem Mac Bride, Commission of Enquiry (1980) on information flow, is that rural people who produce bulk of the food, thereby enhancing the growth of the economy, should be given urgent attention in information dissemination.

Izuora (1993) notes that programmes have been designed and carried out to improve health conditions, promote non-informal education, ensure cultural promotion, civic education, and the improvement of agricultural production. According to him programme managers and policy makers admit that through single, drama, documentaries, news and talk programmes, radio is being effectively used to reach the grassroots.

Those who found fault in the face – to – face communication and oral media did so due the lack of persuasion and inadequate coverage characteristics of them. For the newspaper and magazine, the high level of illiteracy prevalent in the rural areas constitute an impediment to the messages since the illiterate ruralite cannot read and even when the messages are coded or written in his own language.

To further establish the inadequacies of the or media, Ikechukwu E. Nwosu (1990) in his article “An overview of the Relationship Between Communication and Rural/National Development” in Mass Communication and National Development (ed), said that “The problem in employing these media of traditional communication as potent instrument of development communication lies more in the area of changing the attitude of the communicators, policy makers and researchers toward them. We also need to improve the level of massage storage, retrieval and replicability among these or media forms. It lies more in expanding our understanding of their functions, nature, content and uses, and may be coming up with standard technical vocabulary for describing its various forms in our various communities”.

The radio and television in this regard, are the most effective means of reaching the rural dwellers, and to effect social and development changes in these neglected or totally forgotten rural areas.

To Oyun community in Kwara state Local Government area, in Kwara state, radio set are more easily affordable – hence found in most homes. Even in the rice farm’s, yam farm, in the river fishing, an Oyun man is seen with his transistor radio, conscious to get the gift of the day from his favourite radio station who is ever-ready to broadcast in his language of understanding.

Radio sets, on the other hand, are owned by some well-to-do individuals, whether literate or illiterate. Though Oyun community is characterized by non-availability of electricity those that own the television sets, make use of the electric generating plants, and chargeable batteries to operate the sets.                   

Therefore, to this community, radio ownership is not confined to literate class, as illiterate but well-to-do villagers own media as luxury, capable of providing relaxation from the stresses of the daily life.

No doubt, in his “mass media organisation and management” lecture, Nnamdi Okewa of the development of mass communication E.S.U.T. Enugu, maintain that: Most Yoruba purchase radio sets not just for the luxury of it, but for the sake of Abule Oloke-Merin drama, which provides an excellent comic relief to the Yoruba man after his activities during the day”.   

This study compares the level of which radio is been used to pass a message as agent of rural development so as to improve their level of literacy of Oyun community in Kwara state.

Previous researchers in this field confined themselves to the study of urban and rural dwellers in terms of media exposure. But this research aims at specifically finding out which of the two mass media of communication – radio or television is mostly used by the Oyun community in Kwara, in obtaining development information. We also intend to study the two media in the daily life of this rural people. We also, will find out whether the community embarked on any rural development project, and what roles the radio played as against the audio – visional – television.


In a traditional African Society, communities undertook various form of development projects, these projects includes village hall, construction of access roads to farm – settlements, neighboring villages and towns, and other traditional project.

Added to this aforementioned project are the provision of good drinking water, building of modern school, cottage hospitals, and health centres, post offices and even modern markets and electrification project.

More of ten the execution of such projects depend on effective leadership of the town and village heads (chief) and available resources of the community, and their level of awareness.

However, in the present circumstances, communities are beginning to be exposed to different influences of development. Government project are not found at every nook and carry in different rural communities. This is to say that our governments have regarded these hardworking ruralities as isolated or totally forgotten, especially as the government faces austere or harsh economic realities.

Although, electricity supply does not exist in Oyun community, the well-to-do individuals in this community make use of electric generating plants for their television sets, while others make use of chargeable motor batteries to that effect. To this community, television ownership is not confined to literate class, as illiterate but well-to-do villagers own television as luxury goods.

Issues of promoting literacy border on improving, advancing or modernizing the living conditions of people especially in the rural areas. Different efforts have been made by development partners/agencies towards ensuring the transformation of rural communities especially in developing nations like Nigeria. The issue of promoting literacy in rural development areas likes of Oyun community is presently topical in all spheres of human endeavour.

To promote these projects, radio stations will create programmes that sensitize the populace predominantly in the rural areas. The relationship between radio and rural or promoting literacy cannot be under-estimated. Radio can help to reduce various challenges faced by the illiterate people in rural populace, also health challenges, illiteracy manners, hunger and starvation. It can also be used to foster harmony and improve communication among rural communities. Radio is generally known as an agent of development. This notion is embedded in the agenda-setting role of the mass media in their functions of surveillance, interpretation, linkage and transmission of values/cultures. Unfortunately, developing countries are faced with so many problems that deter the absolute utilization of the contributory roles of the mass media.


In this study, the following were the objectives:

1.       To find out the roles of radio in promoting literacy in rural development.

2.       To ascertain whether radio can be used to promote literacy in rural development in Oyun community, Kwara state.

3.       To unveil the extent to which radio can help actualize literacy in rural areas in Oyun community, Kwara state

4.       To determine the major constraints of radio stations in promoting literacy in rural areas in Oyun community, Kwara state.


The study raised the following research questions:

1.       What are the roles of radio in promoting literacy in rural areas?

2.       How can radio be used to promote literacy in rural areas in Oyun community, Kwara state?

3.       To what extent can radio be used to actualize literacy in rural area in Oyun community, Kwara state?

4.       What are the major constraints of radio stations in promoting literacy in rural area in Oyun community, Kwara state?


This study will provide valuable contributions for theory, practice and research. Theoretically, the findings are expected to support previous theories and premises in the area of radio, literacy and rural/community development areas. Even though the findings of this study are expected to be affected by cultural differences as obtainable in a multicultural environment despite the fact that the area of study is dominated by one tribe, it will however not be different from those study contexts already reported in extant literature.

Practically, it is therefore expected that broadcasting policy makers, radio producers, especially developmental programme producers will see this study as an exposé of how they can affect the lives of the rural people positively and engender development to the rural areas through qualitative and effective programming. In research, the study will help in providing material for scholarship in radio, literacy and rural areas related issues.


This study was limited in scope and in content. This study was limited to the discourse of issues bothering on radio on literacy and rural/community areas.

Geographically, it would have been better, if possible, to study the entire population in Kwara state, but to do this would not only be too expensive, but it may make the research to be complicated because of the large number of people that would be involved. This is the reason for picking the community on focus among all the communities in Oyun community, Kwara state. Therefore, this study will cover Tepatan community in Oyun area, Kwara state.


The following are the terms which are operationalized within the context of this study: 

RADIO: Radio as a Medium of Mass Communication. Communicators use several media to transmit a message (a thought, idea, opinion, and attitude) to the readers, listeners and or viewers. These media: film, print, broadcasting, are used differently by people for various purposes.

PROMOTING: This refers to the support or actively encourages (a cause, venture, etc.); further the progress of. Also raise (someone) to a higher position or rank

LITERACY: Is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write. The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture. The concept of literacy is expanding in OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. 

The key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. Reading development involves a range of complex language underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds (phonology), spelling patterns (orthography), word meaning (semantics), grammar (syntax) and patterns of word formation (morphology), all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension.

RURAL AREAS: Is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing "...all population, housing, and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural."

Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are commonly rural, as are other types of areas such as forest. Different countries have varying definitions of rural for statistical and administrative purposes.

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