Format: MS-WORD Chapters: 1-5
Pages: 52 Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH
The Increase in industrial and human activities in Owele River has led to generation of wastes and their disposal has resulted to air, land and water pollution. This study examined the degree of heavy metals contamination of Owele river in Ankpa, Kogi State Nigeria. Heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Pb were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the result compared with the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality and World Health Organization permissible limit. The pollution load index between the heavy metals in the river produced the following output: Fe>Cu>Pb>Zn>Cd/Ni. The application of factor analysis on the data revealed three sources of pollution arising from the various human activities taking place along the river channel. The findings indicate that the water needs some degree of treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from the perils of contamination.
1.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Heavy metals are considered very important and highly toxic pollutants in the various environmental departments. Ecotoxicologists and environmental scientists use the term “heavy metals” to refer to metals that have caused envi-ronmental problems. Heavy metals including both essential and non-essential elements have a particular significance in ecotoxicology, since they are highly persistent and all have the potential to be toxic to living organisms (Storelli et al., 2005). The metals which have been studied extensively the last decades are: Cd, Hg, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Co, V, Ti, Fe, Mn, Ag and Sn. Some metals that have received more attention are Hg, Cd, and Pb, because of their highly toxic properties and their effects on the environment and the living organisms. Inputs of these toxic heavy metals to the environment as a result of anthropogenic activities is difficult to measure due to the very large natural inputs from the erosion or rocks, wind-blowing dusts, volcanic activity and forest fires. Atmospheric and river inputs, dredging spoil, direct discharges, industrial dumping and sewage sludge are some of the important contributors to metal pollution, which lead to the release of toxic heavy metals to the marine environment.
Rivers are by far the cheapest form of water compared to other sources like ground water and sea water. According to Amadi et al.,(2010), meeting water quality for stream and river is required to protect drinking water resources, encourage recreational activities and to provide a good environment for fish and
wildlife. Therefore, water quality evaluation and management is of ecotoxicological importance. Changes in water chemistry of rivers are usually anthropogenic via domestic, industrial and agricultural discharges which may in turns results to degradation of the aquatic ecosystem (Ezigbo, 1989 and Amadi, 2010).The increase in agricultural activities, human defecations and deposition of waste and small industrial activities has led to discharge of waste into the Owele River.
Water pollution is defined as the contamination of water with pollutant and other contaminants. The effects of pollutants on water are diverse and affect human, plants, animals and the environment at large causing genetic disorder and diseases. Water pollution affects aquatic life both flora and fauna. They are polluted when the water is polluted with natural agent such as pollen grains, dust and volcanic ash. Poor water quality is a significant global issue, and it is responsible for most disease, and deaths (WHO, 2005). Ensuring good water quality is therefore a basic factor in guaranteeing public health, the protection of the environment and sustainable development (Ranjini et al., 2010). Water of good drinking quality is of primary importance to human physiology, and man’s continued existence largely depends on its availability (Lemikanra, 1999; FAO, 1997). Water related diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, bilharzias, etc. have been reported to be on the increase among the local people who lack potable water and have resorted to using raw contaminated stream and underground water for drinking and domestic purposes (Galadima et al., 2011). As a result, the World Health Organization had stressed that the single major factor adversely influencing the general health and life expectancy of a population in many parts of the world, particularly developing countries, is the lack of ready access to safe drinking water (Hoko, 2005). Thus, conformation with physicochemical and microbiological standards is of special interest because of the ability of water to spread diseases within a large population (Obeta and Ocheje, 2013). Therefore, the utility of any water depends on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of such water (Sunitha et al., 2012).
Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa with over 170 million people, lacks adequate access to improved drinking water supply (WHO/UNICEF JMP, 2012). This has been attributed to several factors such as lack of baseline data, lack of appropriate policy, dearth of legal, regulatory and institutional framework, corruption and lack of government commitment (Taiwo, et al., 2012). Likewise, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) progress report of 2012 showed that Nigeria may not meet either the MDG’s target for the estimated use of improved sanitation facilities, or the target for improve drinking water sources by 2015 (WHO/UNICEF JMP, 2012).
In Kogi State, the National Population Commission (NPC) census and housing survey published in 2009, reported that, only about 7% of households in the state have adequate access to quality water supply while 14% of household get water from vendors, 35% from rivers and streams and 27% from wells (National Bureau of Statistics, 2009).
The emerging scenario is that majority of households in Kogi State obtain water from pollution-prone sources. To further strengthen the above assertions, (AWDR, 2006) observed that 70.1% of households in Kogi State rely on non-potable sources including unprotected dug wells, vendors, hand-dug ponds and streams for their water supply. Unfortunately, the low-income communities that largely rely on untreated stream water for domestic and agricultural uses in the state are the most exposed to the impact of poor water quality and are also the ones that do not have adequate infrastructure to monitor water quality regularly and implement control strategies (Ayoko et al., 2007).
Owele community is one of the community in Ankpa local government area of Kogi state, which is bordered by other communities such as Gari, the entire community which comprised Ankpa town (Ojielayi, Lona, Ojaokoto etc), the community had witness influx of people over the years due to proliferation of institutions of higher learning, commercial activities, growth in small scale industries, hospitals, etc.
The residents of Owele, Ankpa town and up to Orjielayi rely largely in part on Owele river water for various uses. Because of the absent of piped borne water supply, good boreholes, and wells in these areas, the residents have resorted to the utilization of the untreated stream water (Owele river). This intake of water from stream with unascertained concentration levels of chemical compounds and bacterial (EPA, 2008), can result to incidents of water-related diseases among the dwellers. The dearth of basic scientific information about water quality parameters has also created problems of planning and management of this resource as people abstract stream water without known threshold values. Consequently, the analysis of stream water quality in Owele is not only appropriate but timely because since there is paucity of baseline data on the quality of this stream, it is necessary to ascertain how impaired or degraded the water of this stream has become over the years.
Evaluation of pollution index of river water can be a complex process undertaking multiple parameters responsible for causing various stresses on overall water quality. To evaluate water from a river, which contain concentrations of many pollutants is difficult (Almeida et al., 2007). To analyze water quality, different approaches like statistical analyses of individual parameter, multi-stressors water quality indices, etc have been considered (Venkatesharaju et al., 2010). Numerous water quality indices have been formulated all over the world which can easily judge out the overall water quality within a particular area promptly and efficiently.
Water pollution indices are tools to determine conditions of water quality like any other tool require knowledge about principles and basic concepts of water and related issues (Nikbakht, 2004). It is a well-known method of expressing water quality that offers a stable and reproducible unit of measure which responds to changes in the principal characteristics of water (Brown et al., 1972). River water pollution indices give the number of pollutant present in a water body for reporting. Water is the most important natural resources required for human survival. By definition ‘water’ is a transparent, colourless, odourless and tasteless liquid (at standard condition of temperature and pressure).
In Nigeria, the principal sources of water for Agricultural use and human consumption include streams, rivers, dams, and sometime hand dug wells. The natural ecological character of any body of water will be largely determine by it physical, chemical and biological features which may themselves be affected by the ecosystem supported by the water and the character of surrounding area of land.
Water Pollution Affect The Following
v Plant life
v Animal life
These problems which has now become local and national threat. If the problems of water pollution is not checked, it will cause more harm to the nation and world at large. Since the water body is estimated seventy percent (70%) of the earth surface.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The effect of water pollutions are so numerous that explanation can no longer express it especially the one face by the rural dwellers. Water pollution affect all part of life, due to the fact that many organisms cannot do without it, but the way to bring a concise cure to the menace matters a lot, it is cause by many factor which may include:
v Chemical deposition
v Metal deposition (e.g. heavy metals).
The above factors and many others produce a very strong effect on the water and those that consume it. Such effects are diseases, economic depreciation and environmental destruction.
1.3 Aim And Objectives
The major purpose of this study is to find out the number of heavy metal pollutants present in Owele River, the causes of the pollution, the possible effects of water pollution and the relevant solution which can be applied including suggestions relevant to solve these problems.
The basic objective es of this research are to find out:
i. How the people of the locality has suffered from water pollution.
ii. Check what lead to water pollution in the locality.
iii. Check if there is any benefit derived from water pollution.
iv. Consider the solution to water pollution n.
v. How such solution can be maintain.
1.4 Significance of the Study.
The study is embarked upon to leave an impact on the reasoning manner and habit of all inhabitants of Owele community and other communities around Owele river on the misuse and dumping of all kinds of pollutants into the water which makes the river water unhygienic for consumption and other very vital use in their daily activities.
It has to go a long way in educating both young and old about the things they should do to make river habitable by both plants and animal also ensuring the water is usable by man.
The study will also highlight the things that cause water pollution, in order for man to be careful of what they dump into water bodies. It also show the kind of harm water pollution effect on man e.g sickness and diseases etc.
1.5 Scope of the Study
Water pollution in Ankpa local government area of Kogi state today is on the increase and the effect cannot be overemphasized. Nigerians look at the positive effects it has on them neglecting its damages to the society.
The scope include the introduction part, the causes of water pollution, the effect on the environment, health life and nature in the work, solution to problem enumerated will be highlight and also the conclusion.
The method and sources of the work shall depend basically on findings which is been available on Owele river, libraries materials and different sectors of acquiring knowledge such as internet works as the study progresses descriptively and exclusively.
1.6 Definition of Terms.
Some terms which were used during the course of the study are listed and defined as follows.
Pollution: It is the release of harmful substances into the environment e.g water, air etc.
Genetic: The transfer of character and qualities from the parent to the offspring through gene.
Fauna: Animal life of a region or period.
Flora: Plant life of a region or period.
Sewage: Waste water conveyed such as water of human urine or excrement.
Thermal: Large column of hot air rising from the ground.
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