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Development strategies in Nigeria: a study of transformation agenda 2010

 Format: MS WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 68   Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Feb 27, 2020 |  03:29 pm |  1413



Title page







1.1 Background to the study

1.2 Statement of the research problem

1.3 Aims and objectives of the study

1.4 Significance of the study

1.5 Scope of the study

1.6 Research methodology

1.7 Literature review

1.8 Organizational structure

1.9 Conceptual clarification



2.1 The colonial era (1946-1955)

2.2 The era of of fixed term planning (1962-1985)

2.3 The era of rolling plans (1990-1998)

2.4 The era of new democratic dispensation (1999-2016)



3.1 The concept of transformation

3.2 Visions and objectives of the Transformation Agenda

3.3 Component parts of the Transformation Agenda



4.1 Achievements of key sectors in the Transformation Agenda

4.2 Challenges of the Transformation Agenda



5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendations


Works cited 


This work entitled Development Strategies in Nigeria: A Study of President Goodluck Jonathan’s Transformation Agenda, 2010, critically examined the impact of president Jonathan development policy. Though successive governments in Nigeria have adopted various development strategies since 1946, assessment of these strategies have been neglected in historical scholarship. This work sought to cover that gap. The Transformation Agenda was intended to project Nigeria to be amongst the top twenty economies of the world by the year 2020. The study relied primarily on secondary sources of data collection. After a holistic appraisal of the Transformation Agenda, it was found that the implementation of the Transformation Agenda has impacted positively in some sectors. However, there are some shortcomings in the areas of poverty reduction; unemployment; security and infra-structural development. Furthermore, the study found the high cost of governance, corruption, policy discontinuity and insecurity as inimical to the realization of the objectives of the policy. In addition, the study recommends good governance alongside with the abundant human and natural resources that are available in Nigeria as panacea to the realization of the set objectives of the transformation agenda.



1.1 Background to the study

The Transformation Agenda of former President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan was yet another policy package in relation to the 7-Point Agenda of his immediate predecessor, late President Umaru Musa Yar'adua. It is a 5-year development plan, 2011-2015, which also coincides with the life time of his term in office. It arises from the need to re-position the country's drive to development in the critical spheres of the economy hinged on the rule of Law, where equality, peace and justice shall reign (Businessday, 2012). As observed by Itah (2012), the transformation Agenda of Goodluck Jonathan was a policy package that proposes to reposition the economy by addressing issues of poverty, unemployment, insecurity and most particularly, the diversification of the entire economy from total dependence on oil to a significant reliance on non-oil driven economy.

The policy that was initiated by Jonathan was tagged "Transformation Agenda" which would run from 2011 to 2015. The agenda is based on policies, programs and projects that will transform Nigeria to an economic powerhouse in the world. In order to actualize the set objectives of the transformation Agenda, President Jonathan assembled a 28-man Economic Management Team to drive the policy for a five-year period. The economic management team was chaired by the President and, it included the Vice President who served as the Vice Chairman. While the then Minister of Finance, Dr. Ngozi Okonjo Iweala served as the coordinator of the team. The President said while inaugurating the economic team that "as a government we have made substantial gains in our objective of accelerating the pace of the economic development in our country over a short period oftime; I believe that with the economic management team in place, and with the commitment of its members, we will be a vantage position to achieve a lot more." Furthermore, he charged the members of the team to "combine their individual strengths to generate ideas and initiatives in line with our goal of transforming every sector of Nigerian life and society, particularly the economy."

Years into the policy, it is sad to say Nigeria is the third country in the world with extremely poor people according to the World Bank report in 2014. The rebasing of the economy by the National Bureau of Statistics that made the Nigerian economy to be the largest economy in Africa has been condemned by the cross-section of Nigerians. This is because Nigeria being an African largest economy did not translate to the well-being of the masses in Nigeria. Poverty, inequality, insecurity and unemployment continue to spiral despite the transformation agenda, which prompted this study to evaluate the impact and the challenges of the transformation agenda.

1.2 Statement of the research problem

i.       Findings have shown that policies and programmes of government have not received desired attention in historical research. It is in connection that this study thus addresses the problem of lack of interest in the trends of societal development as regards to policies and programmes.

ii.     Though some scholars have discovered the advantages of recording societal trends as regards programmes and policies and have therefore engaged themselves in research. In most cases data collected from the effort are not verified, loosely prepared and bound to have paucity.

iii.  This tendency has beclouded the recognition of notable contributions of various administrations in Nigeria.

iv.  This mentality has equally been responsible for the lack of continuity in government programmes and the absence of a common link and bond of unity which extensive research and the documentation of notable contributions from various administrations could have provided us.

v.     Specifically, this study is focused on the development strategies in Nigeria with an in-depth analysis of the Transformation Agenda of the Jonathan administration.


1.3 Aims and objectives of the study

·        The developments of the Jonathan administration.

·        Highlight the necessity of the Transformation Agenda.

·        Examine the performance of the Transformation Agenda.

·        Highlight the failures and challenges of the Transformation Agenda.

·        To make suggestions for the success of subsequent development plans in the country.

1.4 Significance of the study

The study of development strategies and policies in relation to societal problems need not be overemphasized. The study gives a clearer view on the trends of government programmes as it concerns development and growth of the Nigerian society. It analyses the Transformation Agenda carried out by the administration of Goodluck Jonathan and the extent to which it has ensured the development of the country.


1.5 Scope of the study

This study covers the Transformation Agenda of the Jonathan's Administration with respect to its impact. It looked deeply into the programmes and projects handled by the administration under the jurisdiction of the said agenda. This study opts to analyse the time frame of 2011-2014, four years within the five-year duration of the Transformation Agenda. This time frame has been has been chosen due to it being the main period of the implementation of the project, a season of substantial global economic gains and the last tenure of President Goodluck Jonathan who inaugurated it. The timeframe is well suited for this study owing to the infamous discontinuity inherent in the ushering of new governance after elections, coupled with tumultuous political uneasiness which exceeds national focus in the aftermath.

1.6 Research methodology

Sourced materials used in the course of this study are verbal testimonies where interviews were conducted with personnels from the ministry of Niger Delta affairs, ministry of information and cultural orientation and groups studies as well.

Secondary sources include information gotten from theses, journals, magazines, textbooks and the internet.


1.7 Literature review

Oladeji (2012) opines that the Transformation Agenda denotes a deliberate policy designed to bring about pre-determined changes from a former state of being characterised by weaknesses and deficiencies to a new state that will bring about improvement in quality and elimination of weaknesses and deficiencies associated with the former state. This is a better definition as it addresses the issue of change and the paramount issue of destination point. This definition projects transformation agenda as a vision or guide for future societal transformation through a qualitative structural change which include the building of strong institutions, strengthening of processes and identification with, and commitment of the people to the shared aspirations.

Enu Donald et al (2011) in "human security and sustainable peace building in Nigeria" persisted that the primary role of the state is to provide peace and sustainable growth for its citizens within and outside the state. Since the civil war, ethnic and complicated refugee problems have decreased. However, these security issues have erupted around the tenets of bad governance and poverty. It is in the light of this that government has come up with policies such as amnesty programmes in the Niger Delta Region to arrest grievances and instability thereby leading to peace building and conflict management agenda that will in turn show political will to establish institutions to redistribute the dividends of democracy.

Emmanuel Gyong (2012) in his "social analysis of the transformation agenda" posited that the transformation agenda is the major policy that of Jonathan's administration in Nigeria. The policy package was declared as follows: together we will unite over our nation and improve the living standards of all in the south, east, west and north. Jonathan's transformation agenda is articulated around nine thematic objectives.

Oyewale et al (2013) was of the view that the Jonathan administration was based on the transformation agenda on the inspiration of vision 2020 and the first national implementation plan according to the summary of key federal policies and programmes. It aims to deepen the effect and provide a sense of direction. The agenda is based on a set of policies and programmes which when implemented would transform the Nigerian economy to meet the future needs of the people.

Black and Portar (2000) see the concept of transformation agenda as a concept of leadership that motivates followers to ignore self-interests and work for the greater good to achieve significant accomplishments. Emphasis as laid on the articulation of a vision that will convince subordinates to make major changes in key sectors of the country such as the economy, technology, military, etc. It emphasized on the conduit of cultural and political identities within the Nigerian context. This, this is the vertical dimension to nation building. The horizontal dimension involves the acceptance of the other members of the civic body as equal members of a corporate nation.

Igbuzor (2006) has observed that the problem of development has occupied the attention of scholars, activists and politicians for many years with an increased tempo in the last decade. Even though there are different perspectives to development, there is a general consensus that development will lead to good changes manifested in increased capacity of people to have control over material assets, intellectual resources and ideology, etc.

Bass and Riggio (2006) hold that Nigeria's empirical evidence shows that underdevelopment has continued to wage war on the people despite enormous amounts of resources the country is endowed with. All developed countries in the world today have at one time or the other had leaders who were able to take on challenges of growth and development in their respective countries as issues which must be overcome and did everything within their abilities in order to pave the way for individuals and groups to realize their innate potentials and abilities for societal transformation. The authors identified four elements of transformational leadership that can engender development to include; intellectual situation, idealized influences, individualized consideration and inspirational motivation.

Smith. M (1971) in "institutional and political considerations of pluralism" noted that the efforts of every government should be geared towards nation-building. The author views nation-building as the process whereby people transfer their commitment and loyalty from smaller groups, villages or petty principalities to the larger central political system. Hence, the process of nation-building is the activation of political attitudes, beliefs and values. It was also emphasized that development does not occur in isolation but comes by the identification of societal challenges that have stood as setbacks to human capacity and overall societal growth.

Otoabasi (2011) argues that in order to bring about sustainable peace to the Nigerian society, the policies of government should be of immediate interest inclusive of any interventionist scheme in the country. He enunciated that development cannot be carried out in an environment that is totally resistant to the government. He cited the MASSOP movement which was resistant to the doctrine of one nation. Therefore, the government ought to look to the yearnings of the people as it concerns rights and freedom, in order that it may serve as a signpost and yardstick for development which will be in turn measurable and effectively felt. His however did however emphasize on strategic development as it concerns development at both the grassroots and national levels.

1.8 Organizational structure

This research work is divided into five chapters. Chapter one focuses on the introduction and chapter two provides the history of development programmes in Nigeria. Chapter three explains the Transformation Agenda in Nigeria while chapter four expounds on the achievements and challenges of the Study Agenda. Finally, chapter five summarizes, concludes and makes recommendations from the body of work. 

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