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IMPACT OF THE KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF CONTRACEPTIVE ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS

 Format: MS WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 65   Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Apr 20, 2020 |  05:24 pm |  1015

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Achieving greatness in life is the desire of every sane individual and it is partly the purpose of being educated. Female education faces several challenges in Africa in particular, ranging from social discrimination and abuse. The female person appears to be more attractive, inviting, seductive and captivating, at the same time, they are highly sympathetic and emotional than the male gender which often make them victims of abuses. It is observed that the increase in population of tertiary education and the inability of the government to adequately provide the needed social infrastructures and funding, has led to risky coping mechanisms among the female students (Olson, 2000).

An estimated 20 million unsafe abortions was observed to be taking place each year resulting in 67,000 deaths annually, mostly in developing countries out of which campus students have the majority. Family planning could prevent many of these tragic deaths by reducing the number of unintended pregnancies with a higher risk of pregnancy complications and unsafe abortions (Singh &Darroch, 2012). It is observed that use of contraceptives often reduce the risk of unintended pregnancies among female living with Human Immuno-deficiency virus (HIV), resulting in fewer infected babies and orphans. In addition, male and female condoms provide dual protection against unintended pregnancies and against Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) on campuses. Contraception is an effective approach to reducing costs associated with (HIV/AIDS:) Savings are estimated at $25 at HIV/AIDS care and treatment facilities, for every dollar spent on family planning (which is equivalent to Nine thousand one hundred twenty five naira). Contraceptive use prevents more than 577,000 unintended pregnancies to HIV-infected women each year in sub-Saharan Africa; if all women in the region who did not wish to get pregnant used contraceptives, another 533,000 additional unintended pregnancies to HIV-positive women could be averted annually.

According to Kemanto (2004) students of the opposite sex (who are related from home and whose parental financial status could not afford separate accommodations) are forced to live together and share things in common without the consent of the family to the sanctification of the institution of marriage and family. Against this background the knowledge and practices of the use of contraceptive among female students in higher institutions becomes necessary.

Undergraduate students’ ability to choose when to become pregnant has a direct impact on their health, social well-being and academic performance. The use of contraceptives can delay pregnancies in young women at increased risk of health problems and death from early childbearing. It prevents unintended pregnancies and increased risks related to pregnancy. Family planning enables women who wish to limit the size of their families to do so. Evidence suggests that women who have more than 4 children are at increased risk of maternal mortality (World Contraceptive Reports 2013, UNDESA).

          Despite the recent increase in contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa, the region is still characterised by high levels of fertility and considerable unmet need for contraception (Babalola, 2001). In the developing world such as Nigeria, a substantial gap still exists between women stated reproductive preferences and their use of contraception. Freedom on campus often makes it easy for students of the two sexes to be together for academic purpose, and sometime passing the night behind a closed door, thereby resulting in unplanned intercourse. Ladies with contraceptive knowledge either use “after morning pile” or flush her system.

Statement of the Problem

          There appears to be more female than male students in the admission offer system in Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, partly because girls seem to constitute larger population in this part of the world. Some of them do not successfully complete their academic careers owning to several distractions that could result in low academic performance and incomplete educational programme. Sometimes such situations are caused by unprotected intercourse leading to transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), unwanted pregnancy, unplanned birth, abortion or evacuation which sometime could result to a lifelong barrenness. The above scenario could be prevented by the use of contraceptives and family planning mechanisms. The study therefore considered the impact of the knowledge and practice of contraceptives on female undergraduates; health in relation to their academic performance.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was:

1.   to investigate the knowledge of contraceptive use among female students in Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko,

2.   to find out the acceptance level of the use of contraceptives among female students in Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko,

3.   to examine whether there is contraceptive usage among female students in Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko.

4.   to investigate whether there is a relationship between contraceptive usage and quality academic performance among female undergraduate students’ of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko,

5.   to see whether there is any difference in the academic performance of female undergraduate students who practise contraceptive usage and those who do not.

Research Questions

1.   Is there any awareness on the use of contraceptives among female undergraduate students in Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko?

2.   Is there any difference between the academic performance of female students that accept the use of contraceptives and those who do not?

Research Hypotheses

1.   Awareness on the use of contraceptive among female undergraduate students will not significantly translate to its practices.

Significance of the Study

The outcome of this research could increase awareness level and knowledge on the use of contraceptives among female students in tertiary institutions, especially in Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko. The knowledge of it could also boost the health practice and academic performance of students through the eradication of distractive elements such as; unwanted pregnancies, contamination of STDs, unprepared child birth and eradication of life-long stigmatization of bareness.

Delimitation

This research work was restricted to female undergraduate students in Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko in Ondo State Nigeria only.

Operational Definition of Terms

Knowledge: Having the general understanding above the usage of contraceptives, especially among undergraduate female students.

 Implications: The outcome or effect, either positive or negative for students involved in the act of contraceptive usage.

 Practices: Can refer to the usage or use of certain ideas or knowledge acquired for self-care and other benefits, especially about contraceptives in tertiary institutions.

Contraceptives: Capable of preventing conception and STDs through the use of drugs or other devices.

Academic performance: Success recorded during an academic endeavour especially by students in tertiary of learning.

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