Format: MS WORD Chapters: 1-5
Pages: 50 Attributes: STANDARD PROJECT
1.1 Background to the Study
Technology has completely changed virtually every aspect of our society over the past few decades, from the way we work to the way we socialize. One of the noticeable difference is the change in the way children play and interact with each other from previous generations of children. Although technology provide many positive benefits for learning, it also can have several negative effects on the child development and quality of life (Dhruvin, 2017).
Information communication technology has become extremely common, with nearly every house having access to one. Through its extensive use, children become closely connected with information communication technology, using them at home, at school, at a childcare center, or in any other setting. The traditional ways of communication and learning have changed, as information communication technology now play a large role in childhood development, many wonder whether this is a good or bad thing.
As information communication technology play a larger and larger role in the lives of our children, it is important to ask what impact they are having (Adams, 2010). According to Nigeria Bureau of Statistics (2009) there are 9.6 million active home internet users in Nigeria, with a continually growing proportion of homes with internet access. The internet was initially designed to connect separate networks, allowing them to communicate with each other. What occurred was a super framework of networks that could store and transmit digital media almost instantaneously allowing all linked systems to communicate with each other (Castells, 2001). Over the last 40 years, information communication technologies (ICT) have become more powerful, less expensive, smaller and convenient. Information Communication Technology and their risk and benefits have attracted large amounts of attention. The ICT phenomenon is now a fundamental part of society and has changed the way individuals pay bills, send mail, chat, play games, buy and sell items, and connect with friends. This has created both new opportunities and new concerns for society.
There has been much media discussion relating to the benefits and risks associated with information communication technology, digital media and children. For the purpose of this study, the term children relates to all young people between the ages of 3 years and 7 years. It is a common belief that children are at risks from ICT and digital media as they lack the knowledge and skills to safely navigate through this new digital world. The internet is often portrayed as an infiltration device that provides no safe place for anyone to hide "even in the privacy of their own home or bedroom" (Courier Mail, 2012). However the educational benefits are also widely emphasised through the media, with information communication technology being credited with the creation of new innovative learning experiences in education and the suggestions for a much needed push for computers and internet access for young people in every classroom (Courier Mail, 2006).
Many argue that parents should limit the time children use information communication technology. A growing problem among children these days is the problem of information communication addiction. Due to the influx of online gaming and programs, many children spend a lot of time playing these games whether it is a multiplayers, role-playing, action or preheating games. Stacey (2013) believe that with online and PC games gaining popularity, more and more children are spending hours doing nothing but sitting in from of the technologies playing computer games and view the excessive use can lead to less socialising with friends, less movement or exercising, less time spent with family and losing touch with the real outside world.
Studies have shown that computers have a profound effect on several critical areas of a child’s life: education, entertainment, early social relationship and health. The outcome of the relationship between children and information communication lies between two extremes, beneficial or harmful. Swinarski, Parente and Noce (2010) opined that without the proper guidance, children may suffer physical, social, and psychological effects from prolonged, unmonitored information communication technology use. Yet, with the proper supervision, parents can guide their children experience with ICT, largely negating the negative effects. Thus, it is important for parents, teachers, and other adults who deal with children on a regular basis to learn how to make sure children get the right experience from computers and the internet.
In the View of Ahn and Randall (2007) ICT is affecting the social development of children. There have been concerns that excessive ICT use may stunt the development of social skills and interpersonal relationships. Though the use of social networking tools such as Facebook and Twitter have made these concerns largely irrelevant, children need guidance to make sure they get the proper experience. Whether or not ICT are used to augment a child's social development largely depends on what they use it for. US Kindergarten Prep Child Care Center (2017) concluded that in today’s technologically advanced society, children typically spend around several hours each day using digital devices that can impact their early childhood development. The benefits of technology on early childhood development and learning are evident. However, the overuse of technology can lead to a sedentary lifestyle and causes issues with behavior, development and the learning process. The effects are greatest on younger children. Parents and educators must consider both the positive and negative effects of technology when they are determining which digital resources to use and the time limitations placed on them. While technology is an effective tool for supporting early childhood development and learning, Pooja (2017) asserts it cannot replace hands-on activities like art, sand exploration, reading books, drama and writing. Parental and professional educational judgment is necessary in deciding which technology resources to use and the length of time children can have access to them. According to Julie Lewis (2012), a registered speech language pathologist “The research is pretty clear that when children spend too much time looking at electronic screens (TV, tablets, smartphones, gaming devices etc.) it can interfere with their development. Many parents know this and put limits on the amount of time their children spend looking at screens.”
Technology changes the way kids socialize and interact with others, which can have huge impacts on their mental and emotional well-being. Dhruvin (2017) concluded that it has now become common knowledge that high levels of social media use, in both kids and adults, can lower self-esteem and create negative moods. However, all types of technology can actually have negative effects on children when used in excess, because they lower children’s frequency of interacting with their peers. This makes it more difficult for them to pick up on social cues and develop meaningful relationships with others, something that can have serious negative consequences as they grow and develop. They also have a difficult time developing emotions the same way other kids would if they spend too much of their time with technology and not enough time being engaged while in the presence of others. Dhruvin (2017) further opined that this is not to say that all technology is bad, or that children should never use technology. Technology provides tons of positive opportunities for learning, entertaining, and socializing, but it should be monitored and used appropriately.
Pooja (2017) opined that today’s families are different. Technology’s impact on the 21st century family is fracturing its very foundation, and causing a disintegration of core values that long ago were the fabric that held families together. Juggling school, work, home, and community lives, parents now rely heavily on communication, information, and transportation technology to make their lives faster and more efficient. Pooja (2017) asserted that entertainment technology (TV, Internet, video games, iPads, cell phones) has advanced so rapidly, that families have scarcely noticed the significant impact and changes to their family structure and lifestyles. A 2010 Kaiser Foundation study showed that elementary aged children use on average 7.5 hours per day of entertainment technology, 75 percent of these children have TV’s in their bedrooms, and 50 percent of North American homes have the TV on all day. Gone is dining room table conversation, replaced by the “big screen” and take out.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Information Technology is now household name through which a large heterogeneous people can be reached for the purpose of information dissemination at a specific time. There are two sides to this; this means that as information technologies have so many advantages, even so it does have its disadvantages too. People truly have access to important information through ICT even at the comfort of their homes, not only that, children also learn so many things from the educative programmes through ICT. There is, however documented concern about the safety and negative effects of ICT particularly with young people if children’s exposure to ICT contents are not properly monitored and controlled by parents and guardians, they can also learn so many bad things from ICT contents as well. The usage of ICT supposedly lead to addiction with a technology and exposure to inappropriate content, besides all that chances of child interacting with family members are also decreased, what is supposedly to lead towards decreasing of child’s emotional development. All this dangers and disadvantages of ICT usage are mostly connected with the amount of ICT usage, its content and the degree of parent control. The focus of this study is to examine the negative influence of information communication technology on children education.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the negative influence of information communication technology on children education. Other specifics objectives are:
1.4 Research Questions
Three research questions guided the study:
1.5 Significant of the study
This study will be highly useful for parents, teachers and the growing children. The research on the negative influence of information communication technologies on children education will be of great help in that it would; Help parents become sensitive to the inevitable negative influence of ICT on their growing children and how they can effectively manage the menace from crumbling their efforts to give the child good education. To the teacher, the knowledge obtained from this study will enable them to understand how information communication technology affects children’s development, and seek to help them refine and adopt guidelines that maximize the positive effects and minimize the negative effects of information in children’s live. The society will benefit greatly from the study as the finding of the study will help to produce children with the right attitudes. Finally, this study will contribute to literature and be of help to future researchers in similar study.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is to examine the negative influence of information communication technology on children education in Ondo West Local Government Area, Ondo State.
1.7 Definition of Terms
The following terms are explained in order to get a clear picture of the study: Information Technology: Although there is no single, universal definition of ICT, the term is generally accepted to mean all devices, networking components, applications and systems that combined allow people and organizations to interact in the digital world.
Children: For the purpose of this study, the term children relates to all young people between the ages of 3 years and 7 years of age.
Education: Education is the way a child is raised, or the lessons, instructions and teachings that his or her parents impart. It is the training and education received while growing up.
Negative Influence: influence that teaches children to do wrong or to make them have bad thoughts about someone or encourages wrong actions and thoughts.
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