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EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN DEKINA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KOGI STATE

 Format: MS-Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 65   Attributes: Primary Data/questionnaire, Data Analysis

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 29, 2018 |  05:35 pm |  2345

      CHAPTER ONE

                                        INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Education is a process through which individuals acquire skills, competencies and attitude. It is the right of every child to be educated, be it formally or informally. Education is been regarded as a culture to man, people, and the nations of the world at large. This is why man has to be educate himself and offspring in the society. Poverty is one of the factors militating against man from carrying out his educational activities perfectly.

Approximately 1.3 billion people in developing countries live on $1.25 a day or less. Between 1990 and 2008, efforts to reduce this number were highly successful and   the amount of people living in poverty decreased by nearly half, from 48 to 26 percent. But according to the latest United Nations report, food price are back on the rise, causing an increase in global poverty or first time in nearly two decades. Poverty, food prices and hunger are extricably linked. Not every poor person is hungry, but almost all hungry people are poor. Millions of people live with hunger and malnurishment because they simply cannot afford to buy enough food, nutritious food as well as the farm produce needed to grow enough good food on their own. Hunger can be viewed as a dimension of extreme poverty. It is often called the most severe and critical manifestation of poverty.

Due to the various views and the complexities of the term poverty, one cannot get a universally agreed definition. But then, poverty according to the Oxford advance learners’ dictionary (2000) defined poverty as a state of being poor. Ogwu Mike (2005), sees poverty as a way of life characterized by low calories intake, inaccessibility of adequate health facilities, low quality education system, low life expectancy, unemployment and under–employment Leroy and Symes (2001) considered poverty as a major anti – risk factors relating the concept poverty to Nigeria, it will therefore, be considered in broader ways which implies that it has been viewed in various perspectives which includes ones nation, state and home background.

At the national level, a nation can be considered being poor when her economic standard is very low and this automatically makes the nation underdeveloped. As regards poverty in the family level, we are referring to the home background. Even before the Western type of education, the home has always been the agency through which man learn various aspects of life to enable him live a meaningful life in his environment. The home which is also known as traditional way of educating the young ones is still regarded as the first school of a child before he enters the larger society. The role of the home cannot be over emphasized because the general assumption that states of poverty in the family or home goes to a long way to determine the extent of youth or students educational development. Education is seen by many as the route to alleviate poverty. There is no doubt that meaningful education is the most potent instrument for alleviating and eventually abolishing poverty.

In considering the effects of poverty on the academic performance of students to be precise, the home background is the most important phenomenon that need to be seriously considered in order to enhance the effective study of the relationship between poverty and students academic performance.

In view of this, some factors that needed to be considered in a home or family background are parents academic qualification, socio – economic class and facilities available in home or home environment as well as parents status.

Historical background of Dekina local government

Dekina local government area is one of the earliest local government created under Kwara State as Dekina Division in 1968. It comprises of three districts. Dekina, Biraidu, and Okura, constituting twelve electoral words, namely; Dekina, Abocho, Anyigba, Odu 1, Odu 2, Egume, Okura, Iyale, Oganenigu, Emewe, Ojikpadala, and Ogbabede. It is bounded by Bassa local government area to the north west, Omala and Ankpa local government are to the East of Ofu local government area to the south (ALGON,  2010). Dekina local government area is the largest local government area in Nigeria in terms of land area. Agriculture is the significant economic activity in Dekina local government. About 80% of people are farmers, engaging mostly in subsistence farming. The climate and soil conditions favour agriculture and livestock production. Cash crops and food crops are produced in commercial quantity in the local government, such crops includes; yam, maize sorghum, cassava, mangoes, cashew nuts and oil palm.

1.2   Statement of the problem

Research shows that in Nigeria, the number of those in poverty has continued to increase every year. By 1999, when the government came into power, it was estimated that more than 70% of Nigerians lived in poverty. In recent years, it has been a controversy through the minds of people that the poor status of any society or nation, even family can really have an impact on the student educational performance. In view of this, the study intends to investigate the impact of poverty on the student’s educational performance in Nigeria. This is because the diversity of the word poverty by different scholars who have used it in the course of their study and how it has affected the learning and performance of the students in their educational development.

Goldstem (1976) admitted this concept when he said that the fact that much of youth educational development takes place in a circle or home, the child begins to attend school in psychological tourism, an attempt would be made to determine the influence of parents socio–economic performance and the poverty impact on students education.

There is a group which contents that the poor have right to be assisted on the bases of group solidarity. Oijkstra (1984) we know that in Africa, the system of the extended family addresses the issues of poverty in the community.

1.3   Objective of the Study

In line with the research questions, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of poverty on academic performance of secondary school students in Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi State, this research also aim at achieving the following specific objectives.

1.           To examine the prevalence of poverty in the study area.

2.           To understand the nature of poverty in the study area.

3.           To determine causes of poverty in the study area.

4.           To examine the relationship between poverty and students educational development.

5.           To ascertain how parents poverty status affects students educational performance.

6.           To suggest possible way through which poverty could be curbed in the study area and Nigeria in general.

1.4 Research Question

For proper examination of this study, the following research questions have been formulated to serve as a guide in the conduct of the investigation:

1.           What is the impact of environment factors on the academic performance of student?

2.           To what extent does the economic status of any nation affects its student’s academic performance?

3.           What is the impact of the socio-economic status of parents on student academic performance?

4.           To what extent does educational background of parents have on students academic performance?

5.           How can lack of equipment such as textbooks affects the academic performance of students?

1.5   Significance of the study

This study is important when looked at from the concept of poverty and the three various factors; the national level, the community level and the home level or family background which influence student’s educational need. It is hoped that the study definitely identified some of the essential factors existing in the various levels as they influence students in their performance. The study will give solutions on how to improve academic performance.

This study will also focus on the need for government to incorporate parents in planning for students. This is because the parents know best the environment under which students at home will learn and other variable which affect their performance. The study also enables us to know that poverty has become a serious problem in Nigeria. Despite her oil wealth, Nigeria becomes one of the poorest nation in the world. Begging has become a vocation to many who now live on the street, the crime rate is alarming, as violence, fraud and armed robbery increases.

1.6   Scope and limitation of the study

The study focuses on the effects of poverty on the academic performance of some selected secondary school students in Dekina metropolis, Kogi State. Attention will be on the prevalence of poverty among students in the area, causes of the phenomenon, nature of the problem and its effects on students educational development.

The researchers are likely to come across some challenges which includes; some school authorities, teachers and respondents would opt not to co-operate with the researchers. The study might also be handicapped by financial constraints which may limit the amount of information to be gathered. Due to rising cost of travelling expenses, the researchers will limit the frequency of travelling to ten (10) selected secondary schools in Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi State Nigeria and the amount of questionnaires for circulation. The schools to be visited area;

1.           Our Lady of Schools, Anyigba.

2.           Government Science Secondary School, Dekina

3.           Government Day Secondary School, Dekina.

4.           Community Secondary School, Aji-yolo.

5.           Ikani – Eibo Memorial College, Odu-Ogbaloto.

6.           Biraidu Community Secondary School, Abocho.

7.           Government Science Secondary School, Odu Ogboyaga.

8.           C.M.M.L Secondary School, Anyigba.

9.           Community Secondary School, Egume.

10.        Government Science Secondary School, Egume.

The limitations cited above is to b e minimized by the researchers through creating good rapport with school authorities and respondents, so that they co-operate with carrying out of the research.

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