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 Format: MS WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 92   Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 May 04, 2020 |  07:03 pm |  1040


The advocates of the School Learning Program (SLP), lay claim on relationship between teachers and students to improved performance of school and minimized learning difficulties. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of performance and learning difficulties in Jomvu Primary. The study is guided by the following objectives: To find out methods used by teachers in teaching students with learning difficulties, to establish teaching resources, to find out the relationship of teachers, staff members and the students and to find out causes of the learning difficulties in Jomvu primary. The researcher will use conceptual framework to demonstrate the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables. The study will target Jomvu primary schools in Mombasa County. The sample size will be 52. The study will use primary data which will be collected through use of questionnaires. A modified Likert scale and chi-square test were also used to measure the strength of relationship between different variables. A pilot study will be carried out to refine the instrument. The quality and consistency of the study will further be assessed. Data analysis will be performed on a PC computer using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS Version 22) for Windows. Analysis will be done using frequency counts, percentages, means and standard deviation, regression, correlation and the information generated will be presented in form of graphs, charts and tables.





This chapter presents background to the study; statement of the problem; purpose of the study; objectives of the study; research questions; significance of the study; delimitation of the study; limitation of the study; Basic assumption of the study  and definition of significant.


1.1 Background of the study 

Education is upheld as a fundamental human right globally. It is recognized as pivotal for the attainment of selffulfillment and national development (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2010). Education is therefore touted as the most important factor for achieving sustainable development and used as an important means for changing attitudes and behaviors. The Hyogo framework for action, which was adopted by 168 nations in January 2005 and 2015 recognize this and encourages government and civic society to use education which facilitate knowledge and innovation, in order to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels of the nation (Nakileza,2007). As a result, governments have placed enormous resources both financial and human to enhance education in their respective countries (UNESCO, 2010). Individual parents have also placed emphasis on the education of their children as the only good inheritance they can give their children.

Typical learning difficulties of students leading to poor performance includes: short attention span, poor concentration, lack of interest attending school activity, poor reading comprehension, inserting extra letters, mispronouncing words, repeating, omitting and using improper inflection during oral reading.(Giftedness 101, by Dr. Silverman, it states: large discrepancies between VCI(verbal comprehension) and PRI(perceptual reasoning) are often misinterpreted as signs of abnormal brain functioning. Thus, low school enrollment, low performance and high student drop-outs are recurring problems in child education among poor households especially in areas of learning insecurity. Due to these reasons the level of education attainment has also been low in many developing countries although both private and social returns to education are recognized to be high (Adelman, et al., 2013). However there is no doubt that other manifestation poverty-than hunger-also affect school performance among students poor background.

School learning programs can help to safeguard students investments in education by defraying some of the costs of schooling and encouraging parents and society to enroll their children in school and ensure that they attend class regularly throughout the complete cycle. This helps protect children from the risk of both formal and informal child labor and facilitates social integration (Paruzzolo, 2014). School performance is a well-recognized safety net that transfers significant value to households with children enrolled in school or with students.

 Consequently, students need to engage in school activities to generate in performance. Thus, many Jomvu primary school students remain out of school. On the other hand, even if schooling is free of charge, families in such areas still don’t have the means to cover some costs as for books, clothes, shoes or transportation. These constraints also keep student from participating in schools but rather force them to stay home and help parents in household chores. Hence, to overcome such problems, investment in education must target not just students, but also households and teachers (Buttenheim, et al., 2011).

In response to these challenges, various interventions have been undertaken. Prominent policies have been designed both at national and international levels to help households and teachers invest on their students education. Addition the few reading materials and class readers are oftenly ignored due to the wrong attitude of teachers towards teaching. Finally, library lessons are used to pursuit of good score in KCPE in schools. Therefore, the researcher sought to identify and establish the effects of students having learning difficulties on performance in Jomvu primary in Mombasa county.


1.2       Statement of the Problem

The proponents of school learning program claim that providing reading material, school activities, award or prices to best improved/ performed. students in schools would ostensibly attract vulnerable children to school, improves their performance and minimizes learning difficulties. According to Lerner (2006), a number of learners, for unexplained reasons, are unable to use reading tool for learning, getting new information, ideas, attitudes, and values from standard 4 upwards. Even after they have been taught, it is quite unfortunate that a large number (17.5 per cent) of them are unable to read efficiently at higher class level (Lerner, 2006).The government of Kenya since January 2003, managed to implement free primary school education programme, this has seen a tremendous increase in the number of children.

 The government of Kenya planned to achieve education for all (EFA) by 2015 and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) by 2030 through provision of quality education that is accessible and relevant to lives of children. Students experience learning difficulties and thus have special educational needs at some time during their schooling pre-service training programs should provide a positive orientation towards special needs to all teachers (Salamanca, 1994)

 Possessing this knowledge, the researcher found out what happens to determine the relationship between this poor academic performance and learning difficulties. Carmine, Silber and Kameenui (1997) found learning difficulties to be the principal cause of failure in school case of Jomvu primary School, Mombasa County. Furthermore, reading failure could lead to misbehavior, anxiety and lack of motivation (Carmine et al, 1997).

Despite the fact that various studies have been done on the factors influencing learning difficulties on performance could be major contribution to poor performance. Little or no study known, the researcher has been done of the influences on school learning programme on student participation in Jomvu primary school, in Mombasa county, hence a knowledge gap. It is this gap that the researcher sought to fill.


1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of learning difficulties on performance in Jomvu primary school, Mombasa county.


1.4 Objectives of the study

The Objectives of this study were to:

1.   To examine the methods used by teachers in teaching students with learning difficulties in Jomvu primary schools in Mombasa County.

2.   To establish teaching resources in Jomvu primary schools in Mombasa County.

3.    To find out the relationship of teachers, staff members, parent and student in Jomvu primary, Mombasa county.

4.   To examine the causes of the learning difficulties in Jomvu primary school, Mombasa county.

1.5 Research Questions

1.   How does learning difficulties affect performance of Jomvu primary schools in Mombasa county?

2.   How does student relate with teachers and school staff members in Jomvu primary schools in Mombasa County?

3.   What the main causes of low performance and learning difficulties in Jomvu Primary in Mombasa County?

4.   What strategies can be used to minimize low performance and learning difficulties in Jomvu primary, in Mombasa county?


1.6 Research Hypothesis

The researcher on the finding on factors influencing learning difficulties and low performance in Jomvu primary school has presented two main hypotheses.

These hypotheses are: susceptibility, and school failure (Malmgren et al, 1999). These hypotheses try to explain why learning difficulties may be increased of becoming delinquents. The susceptibility hypothesis explains that “neurological and intellectual difficulties of students contribute to antisocial behavior” (Brier, 1989: 547).According to Lane (1980) the school failure concludes that failure in academic setting leads to the child being labeled in negative terms by others and by self.  

In addition, to verify these relationships is formed based on student profile developed on the bases of information collected through questionnaire and it is assumed that the student is carrying on his profile as it is


Ho: Students’ attitude towards attendance in class and failure to finish assignment are significantly related with student performance.


1.7 Significance of the Study

The findings from the study can be used by teachers when formulating policies on the students having learning difficulties in order to improve their academic performance. The research methods in the region which could enhance the achievement of intended educational objectives. The study can be of importance to the communities living in learning difficulties prone areas as it could highlight how the student could improve in performing the best despite challenges and difficulties posed by failure. The government, non-governmental organizations and sponsors can also use the findings in the identification and elevation of the factors influencing performance of student in Jomvu primary school education in learning difficulties in Mombasa county. The study can therefore become a base for further research on the area of student participation in enhancing curriculum implementation from appropriate Information to Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD). School communities can also find strategies they could undertake to ensure more students benefit from basic education program hence empowering the local communities to come out of the cycle of illiteracy.

1.8 Delimitation of the Study

The study was concerned with one of Jomvu primary student and excluded other causes of learning difficulties except the comprehension errors which the researcher was able to handle in the limited time. The researcher was interested in Jomvu primary school. This means that the results would not be generalized to all schools except to those with similar influence.


1.9 Limitation of the Study

The study is limited to examine the effects of the school learning program in Jomvu primary school in Mombasa County that is negative attitudes of the respondent toward filling in questionnaires; getting time with principal/deputy principal of Jomvu primary; limited interaction between the researcher, teachers and students since they work under fixed schedule at school.

1.10 Definition of significant terms

Education: refers to the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction in schools

Learning difficulties: difficulties in acquiring knowledge and skills to normal level expected of those of the same age, especially because of mental disability or cognitive disorder.

Performance: the action or process of performing a task or function.

Dropout: refers to stopping to attend school of a student who had been enrolled in certain

                 school before completing a course for example; eight years primary course.

Enrollment: refers to the number of children registered in a school.

Pupils’ involvement: refers to the student active participation in the class learning activities.

Participation: refers to the student actively and lively taking part in teaching-learning activities

                         This encompasses student enrolment, daily attendance, class learning activities and completion of course.

Student attendance: refers to both daily going to school of a student and available in class to learn.

School learning programmes: is a research-based system which helps learners work   successfully


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